30 terms

Science Vocabulary (Biology)

Intro to Genetics Vocabulary
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Allele
Different forms of a gene
Dihybrid
Genetic cross comparing two traits
Dominant allele
An allele that masks other alleles
F1 generation
Offspring of the parental generation
F2 generation
Offspring of the F1 generation.
Fertilization
Joining of male and female gametes forming a diploid cell
Gamete
Haploid sex cell produced through the process of meiosis
Gene
A segment of DNA that codes for a particular trait (or protein)
Genetics
Study of heredity
Genotype
The genetic makeup of an organism
Heredity
Passing of traits from parent to offspring
Heterozygous
Alleles are different
Homozygous
Alleles are the same
Hybrid
Offspring of crosses between parents with different forms of a trait Example(Tall X Short)
Monohybrid
Genetic cross comparing one trait
Parental Generation (P)
The true-breeding stock used by Mendel in his pea plant experiments would produce offspring identical to themselves when self-pollinated
Phenotype
The physical characteristics of an organism
Principle of Dominance
Some alleles are dominant and mask the expression of other alleles. Masked alleles are recessive alleles
Principle of Independent Assortment
Genes (alleles) for different traits segregate independently during the formation of gametes
Principle of Segregation
Genes (alleles) separate (segregate) during the formation of gametes.
Recessive Allele
An allele that is masked by a dominant allele
Trait
A characteristic of an organism
Pure (Homozygous)
It has the same allele. When both alleles of a parent or offspring are identical, one is said to be pure.
Hybrid (Heterozygous)
One of each allele.
Offspring
The child from the parents.
Phenotype
Is the physical trait that is expressed in an individual.
Allele
Are the different forms of a gene for any given trait. For each trait there are 3 allele possibilities.
Genotype
Refers to the genetic make-up of an organism.
Recessive Trait
When the expression of one allele is masked by the presence of another, it is said to be recessive.
Dominant Trait
When the allele masks the presence of another allele, it is said to be dominant.
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