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157 terms

Digestive System

Chapter 6
STUDY
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gastrointestinal (GI) system
digestive system
consists of a digestive tube and several accessory organs whose primary function is to break down food, prepare it for absorption, and eliminate waste
GI tract
digestive tube that extends from the mouth to the anus
oral cavity or buccal cavity
other names for mouth
bilirubin
orange-colored or yellowish pigment in bile;
yellow compound formed when erythrocytes are destroyed
bolus
mass of masticated food ready to be swallowed
exocrine
denotes a glad that secretes its products through excretory ducts to the surface of an organ or tissue or into a vessel
sphincter
circular band of muscle fibers that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening of the body
mouth
or/o
stomat/o
tongue
gloss/o
lingu/o
cheek
bucc/o
oral
pertaining to the mouth
stomatisis
inflammation of the mouth
glossectomy
removal of all or part of the tongue
lingual
pertaining to the toungue
buccal
pertaining to the cheek
lip
cheil/o
labi/o
cheiloplasty
surgical repair of defective lip
labial
pertaining to the lips, particularly the lips of the mouth
teeth
dent/o
odont/o
dentist
specialist who diagnoses and treats diseases and disorders of the teeth
orthodontist
dentist who specializes in correcting and preventing irregularities of abnormally positioned or aligned teeth
gum(s)
gingiv/o
gingivectomy
excision of diseased gingival tissue
saliva, salivary gland
sial/o
sialolith
calculus formed in a salivary gland or duct
esophagus
esophag/o
esophagoscope
instrument used to examine the esophagus
pharynx (throat)
pharyng/o
pharyngotonsillitis
inflammation of the pharynx and tonsils
stomach
gastr/o
gastralgia
pain in the stomach; also called stomachache
pylorus
pylor/o
pylorospasm
involuntary contractions of the pyloric sphincter of the stomach, as in pyloric stenosis
duodenum (first part of small intestine)
duoden/o
duodenoscopy
visual examination of the duodenum
intestine (usually small intestine)
enter/o
enteropathy
disease of the intestine
jejunum (second part of small intestine)
jejun/o
jejunorrhaphy
suture of the jejunum
ileum (third part of the small intestine)
ile/o
ileostomy
creation of an opening between the ileum and the abdominal wall
appendix
append/o
appendic/o
appendectomy
excision, removal of the appendix
colon
col/o
colon/o
colostomy
creation of an opening between the colon and the abdominal wall
colonoscopy
visual examination of the colon
sigmoid colon
sigmoid/o
sigmoidotomy
incision of the sigmoid colon
rectum
rect/o
anus, rectum
proct/o
anus
an/o
liver
hepat/o
pancreas
pancreat/o
bile vessel
cholangi/o
bile, gall
chol/e
gallbladder
cholecyst/o
bile duct
choledoch/o
vomit
-emesis
abnormal condition (produced by something specified)
-iasis
enlargement
-megaly
appetite
-orexia
digestion
-pepsia
swallowing, eating
-phagia
meal
-prandial
discharge, flow
-rrhea
through, across
dia-
around
peri-
under, below
sub-
asymptomatic
without symptoms
gastroenterology
branch of medicine concerned with digestive diseases
ulcer
circumscribed open sore, on the skin or mucous membranes within the body
peptic ulcer disease (PUD)
develops in the parts of the GI tract that are exposed to hydrochloric acid and pepsin, and enzyme secreted in the stomach that begin the digestion of proteins
excerbate
intensify
perforation
hole in the wall lining
ulcerative colitis
chronic inflammatory disease of the large intestine and rectum, commonly begins in the rectum or sigmoid colon and extends upward into the entire colon
hernia
protrusion of any organ, tissue, or structure through the wall of the cavity in which it is naturally contained
inguinal hernia
develops in the groin where the abdominal folds of flesh meet the thighs
strangulated hernia
develops if blood supply to the hernia is cut off because of pressure, leads to necrosis with gangrene
umbilical hernia
protrusion of part of the intestine at the navel
hernioplasty
surgical repair of hernia
herniorrhaphy
suture of the abdominal wall
hiatal hernia
lower part of the esophagus and the top of the stomach slides through an opening (hiatus) in the diaphragm into the thorax
adhesion
mechanical obstruction of scar tissues
volvolus
mechanical obstruction, intestinal twisting
intussusceptions
intestinal "telescoping" where part of the intestine slips into another part just beneath it
hemorrhoids
enlarged veins in the mucous membrane of the anal canal
hepatitis A (infectious), hepatitis B (serum), hepatitis C
3 most common types of hepatitis
ingestion of contaminated food, water, or milk
common cause of hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis)
by routes other than the mouth (such as blood transfusions and sexual contact)
how hepatitis b and c are usually transmitted
jaundice or icterus
yellowing of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclerae of the eyes; often occurs because the liver is no longer able to remove bilirubin or bile duct is blocked causing bile to enter the bloodstream
diverticulosis
condition in which small, blisterlike pockets develop in the inner lining of the large intestine (most commonly in the sigmoid colon) and may balloon through the intestinal wall
diverticula
small, blisterlike pockets
diverticulitis
condition in which the diverticula become inflammed
obstipation
extreme/severe constipation; may be caused by an intestinal obstruction
gastric adenocarcinoma
cancerous glandular tumor
anorexia
lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat
anorexia nervosa
complex psychogenic eating disorder characterized by an all-consuming desire to remain thin
appendicitis
inflammation of the appendix, usually due to obstruction or infection
ascites
abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
borborygmus
rumbling or gurgling noises that are audible at a distance and caused by passage of gas through the liquid contents of the intestine
cachexia
physical wasting that includes loss of weight and muscle mass; commonly associated with AIDS and cancer
cholelithiasis
presence or formation of gallstones in the gallbladder or common bile duct
cirrhosis
scarring and dysfunction of the liver caused by chronic liver disease
colic
spasm in any hollow or tubular soft organ especially in the colon, accompanied by pain
Crohn disease
chronic inflammation, usually of the ileum, but possibly affecting any portion of the intestinal tract; also called regional enteritis
deglutition
act of swallowing
dysentery
inflammation of the intestine, especially the colon, that may be caused by ingesting water or food containing chemical irritants, bacteria, protozoa, or parasites, which results in bloody diarrhea
dyspepsia
epigastric discomfort felt after eating; also called indigestion
dysphagia
inability or difficulty in swallowing; also called aphagia
eructation
producing gas from the stomach, usually with a characteristic sound; also called belching
fecalith
fecal concretion
flatus
gas in the GI tract; expelling of air from a body orifice, especially the anus
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
backflow of gastic contents into the esphagus due to a malfunction of the sphincter muscle at the inferior portion of the esophagus
halitosis
offensive, or "bad" breath
hematemesis
vomiting of blood from bleeding in the stomach and esophagus
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
symptom complex marked by abdominal pain and altered blowel function (typically constipation, diarrhea, or altering constipation and diarrhea) for which no organic cause can be determined; also called spastic colon
malabsorption syndrome
symptom complex of the small intestine characterized by the impaired passage of nutrients, minerals, or fluids through intestinal villi into the blood or lymph
melena
passage of dark-colored, tarry stools, due to the presence of blood altered by intestinal juices
obesity
excessive accumulation of fat that exceeds the body's skeletal and physical standards, usually an increase of 20 percent or more above ideal body weight
morbid obesity
body mass index (BMI) of 40 or greater, which is generally 100 or more pounds over ideal body weight
oral leukopakia
formation of white spots or patches on the mucous membrane of the tongue, lips, or cheek caused primarily by irritation
peristalsis
progressive, wavelike movement that occurs involuntarily in hallow tubes of the body, especially the GI tract
pyloric stenosis
stricture or narrowing of the pyloric sphincter (circular muscle of the pylorus) at the outlet of the stomach, causing an obstruction that blocks the flow of food into the small intestine
regurgitation
backward flowing, as in the return of solids or fluids to the mouth from the stomach
steatorrhea
passage of fat in large amounts in the feces due to failure to digest and absorb it
endoscopy
visual examination of a cavity or canal using a flexible fiberoptic instrument called an endoscope
hepatitis panel
panel of blood tests that identify the specific virus - hepatitis A (HAV), hepatitis B (HBV), or hepatitis C (HCV) - causing hepatitis by testing serum using antibodies to each of these antigens
liver function tests (LFTs)
group of blood tests that evaluate liver injury, liver function, and conditions often associated with the biliary tract
serum bilirubin
measurement of the level of bilirubin in the blood
stool culture
test to identify microorganisms or parasites present in feces
stool guaiac
applying a substance called guaiac to a stool sample to detect presence of occult (hidden) blood in the feces; also called Homoccult (trade name of a modified guaiac test)
barium enema (BE)
radiographic examination of the rectum and colon following enema administration of barium sulfate (contrast medium) into the rectum; also called lower GI series
barium swallow
radiographic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine following oral administration of barium sulfate (contrast medium); also called esophagram and upper GI series
cholecystography
radiographic images taken of the gallbladder after administration of a contrast material containing iodine, usually in the form of a tablet
computed tomography (CT)
imaging technique achieved by rotating an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measuring the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
endoscopic procedure that provides radiographic visualization of the bile and pancreatic ducts to identify partial or total obstructions, as well as stones, cysts, and tumors
percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTCP)
radiographic examination of bile duct structures
sialography
radiologic examination of the salivary glands and ducts
ultrasonography (US)
test that uses high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) to analyze the reflected echos from anatomical structures and convert them into an image on a video monitor
biopsy
representative tissue sample removed from a body site for microscopic examination, usually to establish a diagnosis
nasogastric intubation
procedure that involves insertion of a nasogastric tube through the nose into the stomach to relieve gastric distention by removing gas, food, or gastric secretions; to instill medication, food, or fluids; or to obtain a specimen for laboratory analysis
anatomosis
surgical joining of two ducts, vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to another
ileorectal anatomosis
surgical connection of the ileum and rectum after total colectomy, as is sometimes performed in the treatment of ulcerative colitis
intestinal anastomosis
surgical connection of two portions of the intestines; also called enteroenterostomy
bariatric surgery
group of procedures that treat morbid obesity, a condition which arises from severe accumulation of excess weight as fatty tissue, and the resultant health problems
vertical banded gastroplasty
upper stomach near the esophagus is stapled vertically to reduce it to a small pouch; a band is then inserted that restricts food consumption and delays its passage from the pouch, causing a feeling of fullness
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RGB)
stomach is first stapled to decrease it to a small pouch
then jejunum is shortened and connected to the small stomach pouch, causing the base of the duodenum leading from the non-functioning portion of the stomach to form a Y configuration, which decreases the pathway of food through the intestine and reducing absorption of calories and fats
colostomy
creation of an opening of a portion of the colon through the abdominal wall to its outside surface in order to divert fecal flow to a colostomy bag
lithotripsy
procedure for crushing a stone and eliminating its fragments either surgically or using ultrasonic shock waves
polypectomy
excision of a polyp
pyloromyotomy
incision of the longitudinal and circular muscles of the pylorus; used to treat hypertrophic pyloric stenosis
mouth and first part of the digestive tract
What is the oral cavity?
chemical and mechanical process of digestion begins with teeth and salivary glands
What is the function of the oral cavity?
first segment - duodenum (10 inches long)
second segment - jejunum (approx 8 feet long)
third segment - ileum (about 12 feet long)
Name the three parts of the small intestine.
ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon
Name the first four sections of the colon.
Elongated, somewhat flattened organ that lies posterior and slightly inferior to the stomach.
Describe the shape and location of the pancreas.
Located on the inferior surface of the lives and stores bile.
Describe the location and main function of the gallbladder.