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gastrointestinal (GI) system
consists of a digestive tube and several accessory organs whose primary function is to break down food, prepare it for absorption, and eliminate waste
orange-colored or yellowish pigment in bile;
yellow compound formed when erythrocytes are destroyed
denotes a glad that secretes its products through excretory ducts to the surface of an organ or tissue or into a vessel
circular band of muscle fibers that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening of the body
dentist who specializes in correcting and preventing irregularities of abnormally positioned or aligned teeth
involuntary contractions of the pyloric sphincter of the stomach, as in pyloric stenosis
peptic ulcer disease (PUD)
develops in the parts of the GI tract that are exposed to hydrochloric acid and pepsin, and enzyme secreted in the stomach that begin the digestion of proteins
chronic inflammatory disease of the large intestine and rectum, commonly begins in the rectum or sigmoid colon and extends upward into the entire colon
protrusion of any organ, tissue, or structure through the wall of the cavity in which it is naturally contained
develops if blood supply to the hernia is cut off because of pressure, leads to necrosis with gangrene
lower part of the esophagus and the top of the stomach slides through an opening (hiatus) in the diaphragm into the thorax
intestinal "telescoping" where part of the intestine slips into another part just beneath it
by routes other than the mouth (such as blood transfusions and sexual contact)
how hepatitis b and c are usually transmitted
jaundice or icterus
yellowing of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclerae of the eyes; often occurs because the liver is no longer able to remove bilirubin or bile duct is blocked causing bile to enter the bloodstream
condition in which small, blisterlike pockets develop in the inner lining of the large intestine (most commonly in the sigmoid colon) and may balloon through the intestinal wall
complex psychogenic eating disorder characterized by an all-consuming desire to remain thin
rumbling or gurgling noises that are audible at a distance and caused by passage of gas through the liquid contents of the intestine
physical wasting that includes loss of weight and muscle mass; commonly associated with AIDS and cancer
chronic inflammation, usually of the ileum, but possibly affecting any portion of the intestinal tract; also called regional enteritis
inflammation of the intestine, especially the colon, that may be caused by ingesting water or food containing chemical irritants, bacteria, protozoa, or parasites, which results in bloody diarrhea
producing gas from the stomach, usually with a characteristic sound; also called belching
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
backflow of gastic contents into the esphagus due to a malfunction of the sphincter muscle at the inferior portion of the esophagus
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
symptom complex marked by abdominal pain and altered blowel function (typically constipation, diarrhea, or altering constipation and diarrhea) for which no organic cause can be determined; also called spastic colon
symptom complex of the small intestine characterized by the impaired passage of nutrients, minerals, or fluids through intestinal villi into the blood or lymph
passage of dark-colored, tarry stools, due to the presence of blood altered by intestinal juices
excessive accumulation of fat that exceeds the body's skeletal and physical standards, usually an increase of 20 percent or more above ideal body weight
body mass index (BMI) of 40 or greater, which is generally 100 or more pounds over ideal body weight
formation of white spots or patches on the mucous membrane of the tongue, lips, or cheek caused primarily by irritation
progressive, wavelike movement that occurs involuntarily in hallow tubes of the body, especially the GI tract
stricture or narrowing of the pyloric sphincter (circular muscle of the pylorus) at the outlet of the stomach, causing an obstruction that blocks the flow of food into the small intestine
visual examination of a cavity or canal using a flexible fiberoptic instrument called an endoscope
panel of blood tests that identify the specific virus - hepatitis A (HAV), hepatitis B (HBV), or hepatitis C (HCV) - causing hepatitis by testing serum using antibodies to each of these antigens
liver function tests (LFTs)
group of blood tests that evaluate liver injury, liver function, and conditions often associated with the biliary tract
applying a substance called guaiac to a stool sample to detect presence of occult (hidden) blood in the feces; also called Homoccult (trade name of a modified guaiac test)
barium enema (BE)
radiographic examination of the rectum and colon following enema administration of barium sulfate (contrast medium) into the rectum; also called lower GI series
radiographic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine following oral administration of barium sulfate (contrast medium); also called esophagram and upper GI series
radiographic images taken of the gallbladder after administration of a contrast material containing iodine, usually in the form of a tablet
computed tomography (CT)
imaging technique achieved by rotating an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measuring the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
endoscopic procedure that provides radiographic visualization of the bile and pancreatic ducts to identify partial or total obstructions, as well as stones, cysts, and tumors
test that uses high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) to analyze the reflected echos from anatomical structures and convert them into an image on a video monitor
representative tissue sample removed from a body site for microscopic examination, usually to establish a diagnosis
procedure that involves insertion of a nasogastric tube through the nose into the stomach to relieve gastric distention by removing gas, food, or gastric secretions; to instill medication, food, or fluids; or to obtain a specimen for laboratory analysis
surgical joining of two ducts, vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to another
surgical connection of the ileum and rectum after total colectomy, as is sometimes performed in the treatment of ulcerative colitis
surgical connection of two portions of the intestines; also called enteroenterostomy
group of procedures that treat morbid obesity, a condition which arises from severe accumulation of excess weight as fatty tissue, and the resultant health problems
vertical banded gastroplasty
upper stomach near the esophagus is stapled vertically to reduce it to a small pouch; a band is then inserted that restricts food consumption and delays its passage from the pouch, causing a feeling of fullness
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RGB)
stomach is first stapled to decrease it to a small pouch
then jejunum is shortened and connected to the small stomach pouch, causing the base of the duodenum leading from the non-functioning portion of the stomach to form a Y configuration, which decreases the pathway of food through the intestine and reducing absorption of calories and fats
creation of an opening of a portion of the colon through the abdominal wall to its outside surface in order to divert fecal flow to a colostomy bag
procedure for crushing a stone and eliminating its fragments either surgically or using ultrasonic shock waves
incision of the longitudinal and circular muscles of the pylorus; used to treat hypertrophic pyloric stenosis
chemical and mechanical process of digestion begins with teeth and salivary glands
What is the function of the oral cavity?
first segment - duodenum (10 inches long)
second segment - jejunum (approx 8 feet long)
third segment - ileum (about 12 feet long)
Name the three parts of the small intestine.
ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon
Name the first four sections of the colon.
Elongated, somewhat flattened organ that lies posterior and slightly inferior to the stomach.
Describe the shape and location of the pancreas.
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