19 terms

Unit 7 Classification

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Taxonomy
the science of describing, naming and classifying organisms
Dichotomous Key
an aide that is used to identify organisms and that consists of the answers to a series of questions
Binomial Nomenclature
the scientific naming of species whereby each species receives a Latin or Latinized name of two parts, the first indicating the genus and the second being the species
Domain
any three primary divisions of living systems, consisting of the eukaryotes, bacteria, and Archaea, that rank above a kingdom in taxonomic systems that are based on similarities of DNA sequences
Kingdom
the highest taxonomic classification into which organisms are grouped based on fundamental similarities and common ancestry
Phylum
a primary division of a kingdom ranking next above a class in size
Class
a taxonomic category ranking below a phylum or division and above an order
Order
a taxonomic category of organisms ranking above a family and below a class
Family
a taxonomic category of related organisms ranking below an order and above a genus. A family usually consists of several genera.
Genus
a taxonomic category ranking below a family and above a species and generally consisting of a group of species exhibiting similar characteristics
Species
a fundamental category of taxonomic classification, ranking below a genus or subgenus and consisting of related organisms capable of interbreeding
Archaea
a domain made up of various single-celled prokaryotes genetically distinct from bacteria, often thriving in extreme environmental conditions
Eubacteria
domain bacteria; true bacteria, including most free-living and parasitic bacteria with simple, that are undifferentiated cells with rigid cell walls
Protista
kingdom of mostly unicellular eukaryotic organisms that are different from plants, animals, bacteria and fungi
Protozoa
any of a large group of single-celled, usually microscopic, eukaryotic organisms, such as amoebas, ciliates, flagellates and sporozoans
Fungi
a kingdom made up of nongreen eukaryotic organisms that have no means of movement, reproduce by using spores and get food by breaking down substances in their surroundings and absorbing the nutrientns
Plantae
kingdom made up of complex, multicellular organisms that are usually green, have cell walls made up of cellulose, cannot move around, and use the sun's energy to make sugar via photosynthesis
Animalia
kingdom made up of complex, multicellular organisms that lack cell walls, can usually move around, and respond quickly to their environment
Virus
a microscopic particle that gets inside a cell and often destroys the cell; as viruses are unable to replicate without a host cell, they are typically not considered living organisms