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56 terms

psych exam 2

STUDY
PLAY
GENERALIZATION
When two stimuli are functionally equivalent
autonomic reflex
nothing that we've learned, just natural physical response such (dog saliva/straw lecture story)
shaping
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
episodic memory
memory for episodes in your own life
semantic memory
your memory for meanings and general (impersonal) facts
procedural memory
Memory of learned skills that does not require conscious recollection
sensory memory
the immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system
short term memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, before information is stored or forgotten
long term memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system.
algorithms
very specific, systematic methods that always reach a correct result
heuristics
mental shortcuts that help us to streamline our thinking and make sense of our world
mental set
a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
phonemes
smallest units of sound in the human language, like consonants or vowels
morphemes
smallest meaningful units of speech; simple words, suffixes, prefixes; examples: red, hot, calm, -ed, pre-
heirarchy of needs
Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher level safety needs and then psychological needs become active. (Physiological, Safety, Belongingness/Love, Esteem, Self-actualization)
repression
(psychiatry) the classical defense mechanism that protects you from impulses or ideas that would cause anxiety by preventing them from becoming conscious
childhood amnesia
A phenomenon that no one can accurately recall events from the first three years of life.
conditioned stimulus
the stimulus that is the occasion for a conditioned response
conditioned response
an acquired response that is under the control of (conditional on the occurrence of) a stimulus
unconditioned stimulus
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally—naturally and automatically—triggers a response.
unconditioned response
in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
classical conditioning
a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli - learning by association
ivan pavlov
Russian physiologist who observed conditioned salivary responses in dogs (1849-1936) (CLASSICAL CONDITIONING)
aptitude testing
A test designed to predict future performance
achievement testing
a test designed to asses what a person has learned
memory processes
encoding storage and retrieval
neutral stimulus
a stimulus that does not initially elicit a response
alfred binet
the indvidual that published the first measure of intelligence in 1905. The purpose of his intelligence test was to correctly place students on academic tracks in the French school system.
garcia and koelling
researchers who did major studies on classical conditoning and taste aversions - rats
systematic desensitization
a technique used in behavior therapy to treat phobias and other behavior problems involving anxiety
proactive interference
the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
retroactive interference
the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
BF SKINNER
1904-1990; Field: behavioral; Contributions: created techniques to manipulate the consequences of an organism's behavior in order to observe the effects of subsequent behavior; Studies: Skinner box
syntax
the grammatical arrangement of words in sentences
wais
(Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) Verbal & performance scores. Most widely used intelligence test today
abraham maslow
humanistic psychology; hierarchy of needs-needs at a lower level dominate an individual's motivation as long as they are unsatisfied; self-actualization, transcendence
James Lange theory
we are afraid BECAUSE WE TREMBLE, different PATTERNS of autonomic activation lead to the experience of different emotions
facial feedback
the process by which the facial muscles send messages to the brain about the basic emotion being expressed
HYPOTHALAMUS
forebrain region that governs motivation and emotional responses
YERKES DODSON LAW
performance is best under a condition of moderate arousal - social interaction causes stimulation, change in activity
extinction
the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced.
learning
"anything that happens to us that alters our thoughts or views"
fixed ratio
a schedule where reinforcement happens after a correct number of responses
variable ratio
a schedule where reinforcement happens after a varied number of responses
higher order conditioning
Pairing a second conditioned stimulus with the first conditioned stimulus in order to produce a second conditioned response.
state dependent
memories that are recalled better when the mood in which they were orginallt encoded is recreated
context dependent
the cue is the environment you learnt it in
piaget
Swiss psychologist remembered for his studies of cognitive development in children (4 stages)(1896-1980)
need
state of deprivation
incentive
a reason for doing something
motive
a reason or an emotion that makes one act in a certain way
drive
state of tension produced by a need that motivates an organism toward a goal
psychic energy
Freud's term for the biologically based instinctual drives that he believed fuels behavior, thoughts and feelings
instinct theory
theory that states behavior is motivated by instincts
unconditioned stimulus
this is what the meat powder is considered
conditioned stimulus
this is what the bell tone in the dog experiments is considered