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The system by which we retain information and bring it to mind is called

encoding, storage, retrieval

Many psychologists conceptualize human memory as a type of information processing system that has three
basic processes:

Encoding, storage, retrieval

What is the order of processing in memory?

semantic encoding

Memory encoding that is based on meaning is called

acoustic encoding

Encoding that involves converting auditory signals into strings of recognizable sounds is called

visual; semantic

In memory encoding, mental picture is to ________ as meaning is to ________.

The process by retaining information in memory

Which of the following best describes memory storage?


Remembering how many windows there are in your bedroom involves which type of memory encoding?

retrieval cues

The ability to access stored information from memory often depends on the availability of ________ in
one's present environment that are associated with the original learning and help jog one's awareness.


The best memory usually results from which type of encoding?

encoding specificity

Retrieval of memories is most successful when cues present at recall are similar to those present during the
initial conversion of information into memory. This is referred to as which principle?

are remembered better if cues during recall are similar to those present during learning.

The encoding specificity principle suggests that things

context-dependent memory

While Zubin was in the cheese section of a store, his wife called him on his cellular telephone to remind
him to pick up some cantaloupe. By the time he got to the produce section, he had forgotten what he was
supposed to pick up, only to remember it again when he walked through the cheese section. This is an
example of

context-dependent memory effect

Information is better recalled in the situation in which it was originally learned. This phenomenon is termed

context-dependent memory

Godden and Baddeley conducted research showing that swimmers who learned material on the beach were
better able to recall the material when tested on the beach than when immersed in water. This effect was an
example of

state-dependent memory

People have superior recall for material if they are in the same physiological or psychological condition as
when they learned it. This is known as

sensory memory

A memory storage system that contains memory of impressions for a very brief time (a few seconds or less)
is called

sensory register

The storage device of sensory memory is called the

echoic; iconic

In sensory memory, auditory stimuli are to ________ memory as visual stimuli are to ________ memory.

visual sensory memory

Iconic memory is a type of

it is longer lasting

Echoic memory differs from iconic memory in that

photographic memory

Eidetic memory is also known as

eidetic memory

A form of visual memory in which a visual image is recalled in such vivid detail that it is as if the person
recalling it is still looking at the original image is termed

acoustic coding

Short-term memory relies primarily on


Working memory is conceptualized as the mind's

working memory

The memory system that allows one to hold and mull over information in one's mind for brief periods of
time is called


The capacity of short-term memory was investigated by

capacity of short term memory

The "Magic 7" refers to the

about 5-9 items

What is the capacity of a person's short-term memory?


The process of breaking a large amount of information down into smaller pieces to make it easier to recall is

maintenance rehearsal

Sean stopped outside his professor's office to check on the answers to a quiz. When he began to write the
answers down, his pen ran out of ink. He repeated the last four answers to himself while he rushed to his
dormitory room to write them down. This is an example of

consciously repeating information over and over again.

Maintenance rehearsal is


When school kids say the Pledge of Allegiance, they break its one long sentence into twelve unvarying parts
to make it easier to remember ("I pledge allegiance//to the flag//of the United States//of America//and to the
republic//..."). This demonstrates which of the following?

central executive

The four-component model of working memory consists of the phonological loop, the visuospatial
sketchpad, the episodic buffer, and the

The visuospatial sketchpad

Michele's car hit a truck that stopped short in front of her on the expressway. When the truck suddenly
started and began to speed away, Michele concentrated on retaining a visual image of the truck so that she
would be able to describe it to the police. Which part of the four-component model of working memory was
actively processing her information?

phonological loop

Which component of working memory stores speech-based material?

visuospatial sketchpad; phonological loop

In the four-component model of working memory, visual is to ________ as verbal is to ________.

the central executive

In the four-component model of working memory, which component is best described as "the boss"?

they work independently of each other

In the four-component model of working memory, what is true about the "slaves"?

the episodic buffer

Evelyn is baking a cake. She gingerly opens the oven door to try to decide whether the cake is ready. Based
on the way the cake looks and the aroma emanating from it, Evelyn decides that it is. Which part of the
four-component model of working memory allowed her to integrate the visual image of the cake with the
olfactory information to make that instantaneous decision?


. The process of converting unstable, short-term memory into lasting, stable memories is called

more; less

Compared to short-term memory, long-term memory relies ________ on semantic coding and ________ on
acoustic coding.memories?

elaborative rehearsal

When Jacques wants to learn a new concept, he attempts to connect it with previously existing knowledge.
This is an example of

the semantic network model

When Agnes hears the word banana, she automatically thinks of concepts such as yellow, monkeys, and
fruit. This may be a demonstration of

the semantic network model

Which model suggests that long-term memory is organized in terms of an elaborate arrangement of
associated concepts?

semantic network model

The World Wide Web's design, with its elaborate structure of interlinking concepts, is based on which
model of memory?

spreading activation

The semantic network model proposes a process in which thinking of a concept leads to a rippling effect
that triggers other related concepts. That process is called

Tim Berners-Lee

Who invented the World Wide Web?

knowing how; knowing that

Procedural memory is to ________ as declarative memory is to ________.

explicit memory

Declarative memory is also known as

how to play chopsticks on the piano

June recalled a procedural memory when she remembered

Memory of past experiences or events and previously acquired information

Which of the following best describes retrospective memory?

autobiographical memory

Another name for episodic memory is

semantic memory

Your general world information (e.g., state capitals, U.S. presidents, etc.) is stored in

declarative memory

Keiko knows that Salt Lake City is the capital of Utah and that George Washington was the first president
of the United States. This information is stored in

Where did i go on my first date?

Which question is most likely to be associated with episodic memory?

prospective memory

Morty says, "It's time to take my medication." Which type of memory has Morty relied on in this example?

how to use makeup to conceal the blemish on her cheek.

Paula's procedural memory told her

procedural memory

Grace knows how to tie a square knot and how to drive an automobile with a standard transmission. These
are examples of

priming tasks

Implicit memory can be demonstrated through the use of

declarative memories are easy to verbalize, whereas procedural memories are not.

One difference between declarative memory and procedural memory is that

constructionist theory

The view that memory is based on recreating the past rather than passively storing the past is called

memory schema

An organized knowledge structure reflecting one's past experience and future expectations is called a(n)

memory schema

Gwendolyn's negative stereotype of how Asians behave is an example of a

memory is better when an event coincides with one's set of beliefs

According to constructionist theory

more vivid and just as inaccurate

Compared to other long-term memories, flashbulb memories are

flashbulb memory

Even though she was only a toddler at the time, 45-year-old Jean has a vivid picture in her mind of her
mother weeping when the television announced that President Kennedy had been assassinated. Jean's
experience is an example of which phenomenon?

Flashbulb memories are emotionally charged.

What is true about flashbulb memories?


Wanda suffered for a long time while in an abusive, stressful relationship. After she and her boyfriend broke
up, she did not have vivid memories of those three years. Instead, the stress hormones released by her
________ gland(s) dampened her memories.


Which of the following psychologists is a leading expert on eyewitness testimony

trace theory

Among theories of forgetting, decay theory is also known as

decay theory

The idea that memory gradually disintegrates over time is the basis of

nonsense syllables

One of Ebbinghaus's innovations was the use of what as study material for testing memory?

occurs quickly at first then slowly

The Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve suggests that forgetting

66; 80

In his studies of memory, Ebbinghaus found that ________ of the information was lost by the end of the
first day after studying and that ________ of the information was lost after a month had passed

savings method

Herman counts the number of times it takes to rehearse a list of nonsense syllables in order to memorize it.
Next he counts the number of times it takes to relearn the list after a month has passed. Herman then
calculates the difference between these numbers of times and determines the percentage gain he made
between the two efforts at memorization. Herman uses this figure as a measure of memory retention. Which
technique is Herman using?

massed practice

Jeffrey crams for all of his exams. In scientific terms, Jeffrey's approach to memorization is called

spaced practice

Experts suggest that college students should distribute their study sessions throughout the semester rather
than preparing for exams by cramming. This means that college students should use which approach to

similarity of events

Interference theory explains forgetting in terms of

older memories interfere with newer memories

Proactive interference occurs when

retroactive inference

While Althea was filling out a job application, memory of her current address prevented her from accurately
remembering her previous address. This is an example of

remember the first and last things on a list better than the middle ones.

The serial position effect occurs when people

serial position effect

"I can count to ten," says 4-year-old Tiffany. "It goes like this: one, two, three, seven, six, nine, ten."
Tiffany's counting exemplifies the

the recency effect but not the primacy effect weakens

In memory, as time passes between learning and recall


. Neville is memorizing parts of the brain for his psychology exam. Neville rehearses the information over
and over, well beyond the point where he can recognize and list all of the parts of the brain. Which memory
technique is Neville utilizing?

recency effect

When Louise told her friend about a book she had just read, she was able to provide a lot of details about
the last several pages. This demonstrates the

retrieval effect

Which theory of forgetting suggests that forgetting is the result of a failure to access stored memories?

information to be retrieved never got into the brain

Encoding failure occurs when

encoding failure

Martha only found out from the police that she was an eyewitness after the fact. At the time, it just seemed
like another city dweller in a hurry was getting into his car and speeding away, so she made no effort to
remember any details about the man or the car. Martha's inability to remember is most likely due to

tip-of-tongue phenomenon

While taking her psychology exam, Edith is certain that she knows who developed the forgetting curve. She
remembers studying it, and she can get a vague picture of where the material is in her textbook. Edith's
certainty that she knows something, combined with her inability to recall it, is called


Motivated forgetting is another name for


Repression was first proposed by


In general, which type of memory task produces better retrieval?

retrograde amnesia

Loss of memories of past events is

loss of old memories; loss of new memories

Retrograde amnesia is to anterograde amnesia as ________ is to ________.

there is an inability to form new long-term memories

In anterograde amnesia

retrograde amnesia

Paul has suffered a head injury that causes him to have no memory of the events preceding the injury. He is
suffering from

anterograde amnesia

Ella has suffered a head injury. She is no longer able to form new long-term memories. She is suffering

a physical trace of a memory

What is an engram?


Who exerted considerable effort trying to locate the engram?

neuronal networks

Memory circuits in the brain that consist of complicated networks of nerve cells are called

the engram is housed in the brainstem

Regarding ideas about where memories are stored, the current belief is that

the hippocampus

Which limbic system brain structure plays an important role in the memory of facts and daily experiences

it processes semantic and and episodic memories

With regard to memory, what role does the hippocampus play

the amygdala

Which of the following brain structures plays an important role in encoding memories charged with fear and

a squirt of water; removing gills

Kandel classically conditioned a sea snail. The conditioned stimulus was ________, and the conditioned
response was ________.

sea snail

The idea that synapses can be strengthened by repeated mild electrical stimulation was first investigated in

long term potentiation

The strengthening of synaptic connections by repeated electrical stimulation is known as

long term potentiation

Many researchers believe that in order for long-term memory to occur, which of the following needs to

the production of proteins that transform short-term memories into long-term memories.

The major role of genes in memory may be their ability to control


A device for improving memory is a(n)


Which of the following is a mnemonic that involves forming a word composed of the first letters of a series
of words?

visual imagery

In order to remember that he needs to buy celery, bread, and tissues, Wayne pictures his car with a steering
wheel made out of celery stalks, a seat upholstered with slices of bread, and a tissue box where the rearview mirror is supposed to be. Which mnemonic is Wayne using?


To learn the EGBDF musical scale, Robbie uses the saying "Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge." Which
mnemonic technique is Robbie using?

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