Interactive Science - Human Body Systems - Vocabulary Unit 3 / 2017

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calorie
The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by 1 centigrade (C). (67)
nutrient
Substances in food that provide the raw material and energy needed for an organism to carry out its essential processes. (68)
carbohydrate
An energy-rich organic compound, such as sugar or a starch, that is made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. (68)
glucose
A sugar that is the major source of energy for the body's cells. (68) It is a simple carbohydrate.
fat
Energy-containing nutrients that are composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. (70)
protein
Nutrients that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. Large organic molecule. Made up of amino acids.(71)
amino acid
Small chemically linked units that form proteins. (71)
vitamins
They act as helper molecules in your body's chemical reactions.
minerals
Nutrients that are not made by living things .
Percent Daily Value
A value that shows how the nutritional content of one serving of food fits into the diet of a person who consumes 2,000 calories a day. (78)
Dietary Reference Intakes
Guidelines that shows the amount of nutrients human need everyday. (79)
small intestine
The part of the digestive system in which most chemical
digestion takes place. (87)
liver
The largest organ inside the body, it plays a role in many body processes, such as producing bile for the digestive system. (88)
bile
A substance produced by the liver that breaks up fat particles. (88)
gallbladder
The organ that stores bile after it is produced by the liver. (88)
pancreas
A triangular organ that is between the stomach and first part of the small intestine; it produces digestive enzymes that break down nutrients. (88)
villi
Tiny finger-shaped structures that cover the inner surface of the small intestine and provide a large surface area throughout which digested food is absorbed. (89)
large intestine
The last section of the digestive system, where water is absorbed into the bloodstream and the remaining
rectum
A short tube at the end of the large intestine where waste material is compressed into a solid form before being eliminated. (90)
anus
The opening at the end of an organism's digestive system (in humans the rectum) throughout which waste material is eliminated from the body. (90)
digestion
The process that breaks down complex molecules of food into smaller nutrient molecules. (81)
absorption
The process by which nutrient molecules pass through the wall of the digestive system into the blood. (81)
saliva
The fluid released from glands in the mouth that plays an important role in both mechanical and chemical digestion. (82)
enzyme
A type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing. (83)
epiglottis
A flap of tissue that seals off the windpipe and prevents food from entering the lungs. (84)
mucus
A thick, slippery substance produced by the body. (84)
esophagus
A muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach. (84)
peristalsis
Waves of smooth muscle contractions that move food though the esophagus toward the stomach. (84)
stomach
An organ in the form of a muscular pouch where food is broken down; located in the abdomen. (84)
hydrochloric acid
must be present in the stomach for pepsin to work best
water
needed in order for all body processes to take place. Makes up 65 percent of a human's body weight.
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