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Terms in this set (56)
Human conduct in violation of the criminal laws of the federal government, a state, or a local jurisdiction that has the power to make such laws.
To make illegal.
A formal written enactment of a legislative body.
Law in the form of statues or formal written strictures made by a legislature or governing body with the power to make law.
Human activity that violates social norms.
One who is trained in the field of criminology; also, one who studies crime, criminals, and criminal behavior.
A specialist in the collection and examination of the physical evidence of crime.
A government initiative, program, or plan intended to address problems in society. The "war on crime," for example, is a kind of generic (large-scale) social policy--one consisting of many smaller programs.
An interdisciplinary profession built around the scientific study of crime and criminal behavior, including their forms, causes, legal aspects, and control.
A behavioral predisposition that disproportionately favors criminal activity.
A way of acquiring valued resources from others by exploiting and deceiving them.
The scientific study of crime, the criminal law, and components of the criminal justice system, including the police, courts, and corrections.
A series of interrelated propositions that attempts to describe, explain, predict, and ultimately control some class of events. A theory gains explanatory power from inherent logical consistency and is "tested" by how well it describes and predicts reality.
A theory that attempts to explain all (or at least most) forms of criminal conduct through a single overarching approach.
Having one cause. Unicausal theories posit only one source for all that they attempt to explain.
An explanatory perspective that merges (or attempts to merge) concepts drawn from different sources.
Social Problems Perspective
The belief that crime is a manifestation of underlying social problems, such as poverty, discrimination, pervasive family violence, inadequate socialization practices, and the breakdown of traditional social institutions.
Social Responsibility Perspective
The belief that individuals are fundamentally responsible for their own behavior and that they choose crime over other, more law-abiding courses of action.
The notion that social events are differently interpreted according to the cultural experiences and personal interest of the initiator, the observer, or the recipient of that behavior.
Criminal Justice System
The various agencies of justice, especially the police, courts, and corrections, whose goal it is to apprehend, convict, punish, and rehabilitate law violators.
The lifelong process of social experience whereby individuals acquire the cultural patterns of their society.
nature, extent, cause, and control of criminal behavior
agencies of social control - police, courts, corrections
violation/changes of social norms
Auguste Comte; two main elements: human behavior is a function of forces beyond a person's control, embracing the scientific method to solve problems
Cesare Lombroso; atavistic anomalies: throwbacks to primitive times; shape of facial features has a relationship to antisocial behavior
Durkheim; crime is normal; rising crime rates can signal need for social change
norm and role confusion
relation to an environment that was inadequate for proper human relations and development; criminology is linked to the failure of socialization
Karl Marx; relationship between bourgeoisie (capitalists) and proletariat (labor) developing of class conflicts; development of conflict theory
Rational Choice Theory
Social Structure Theory
Social Process Theory
economic and political forces
Consensus View of Crime
implies that there is a general agreement among citizens on what should be outlawed
Conflict View of Crime
criminal law reflects and protects established economic, racial, gender, and political power; crime is shaped by the values of the ruling class and not the moral consensus of all people
Interactionist View of Crime
people act according to their own interpretations of reality; people observe the way others react either positively or negatively; people re evaluate and interpret their own behavior according to the meaning and symbols they have learned from others
rule of conduct, generally found enacted in the form of a statute that proscribes or mandates certain forms of behavior
written or codified law; the "law on the books" as enacted by a government body or agency having the power to make laws
results from jurisdictional decisions
traditional body of unwritten historical precedents created from everyday social customs, rules, and practices, which may be supported by judicial decisions
Mala in se
refers to crime considered as evil
refers to statutory crimes
serious criminal actions
minor or petty criminal actions
Criminal law seeks to:
enforce social structure, discourage revenge, express public opinion and morality, deter criminal behavior
Evolution of Criminal Law
evolves to reflect social and economic conditions
Ethical Issues in Criminology
what to study, who to study, how to study
learned set of beliefs, values, and norms
Customs and practices that occur across all societies
informal - violation is minimal
moral component - violation is severe
formalized and enforced
most important - violation is intolerable
This set is often in folders with...
Chapters 1-4, Criminology
Criminal Justice Exam 1 (Ch. 1-4)
Criminology Ch 3
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