NBE Prep - Mixture (Anatomy, Path, Micro)

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Antigens enter the body naturally; body induces antibodies and specialized lymphocytes
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Terms in this set (247)
Smallest, functional units of organization in the bodyCellsControls most cellular activities, including reproduction, protein synthesis and the cell's genetic makeupNucleusElectron chargeNegativeProton chargePositive chargeNeutron chargeNoneProtoplasm of a cell. Between nucleus and cell membrane; organellesCytoplasmSynthesize proteinsRibosomesCellular power plants which produce energyMitochondriaContain enzymes which digest substances brought into cellLysosomesMembranes that form canals which transport nutirents and other mateirals through the cellEndoplasmic reticulumCell division/reproductionCentriolesouter boundary of cellPlasma (cell)membraneSquamous shapeFlatColumnar shapeTall and narrowCuboidal shapeSquareStratified epitheliumLayersWhat quadrants feed the left lymph duct?Left upper, right lower, and left lower quadrantsOil glandsSebaceous glandsWhat secretes sebumSebaceous glandsSweat glandsSudoriferous glandsWhat secretes sudorSudoriferous glandsEar wax glandsCeruminous glandsWhat secreted cerumenCeruminous glandsAxial skeleton80 bonesApendicular skeleton126 bonesHorizontal and anterior portion of mandibleRamusZygomaticus majorSmiling muscleOrbicularis orisKissing muscleRisoriusFalse smiling muscle. Ryan the RissoriusMedial boundary of ACT?Midline of the neckSuperior borer of ACT?Inferior margin of the mandibleLateral border of ACT?Anterior border of SCMSimple sugarsCarbohydratesClcerol and fatty acidsFatsAmino acidsProteinsInnermost layer of heartEndocardiumSingle-celled, eucaryotic (true nucleated) organisms, such as candida. Reproduce by budding.YeastsMulti-Cellular, eucaryotic organisms. Reproduce by conidia (sexual) or zygote formation (sexual).MoldsPrimitive, non-organized nuclear bodyProcaryoticSmall, obligate intracellular parasitesRickettsiaProduce typhus fevers, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Q Fever.RickettsiaFrom lice, fleas, mites, and ticks.RickettsiaSmallest of all living organisms. None-cellular entity cannot be grown outside of the living host and thus called obligate intracellular parasites. Cannot establish a mutual relationship with the host. Depends on host for survival.VirusesProtection is obtained against the organism or agent causing a disease.ImmunityAmoebic dysentery, malaria, pneumonia of AIDS, giardisisProtozoaThrush or candidiasis, vaginal yeast infection (molds) dermacytoses, systemic mycosesFungi (yeast)Pyogenic, enteric, acid-fast and spore forming diseasesBacteriaTrachoma, lymphogranuloma venereum, non-gonococcal urethritis, psittacosisChlamydiasSlow virus diseases such as CJDPrionsSpherical or round shapedCoccusRod or cylindrical shapedBacillusTwisted, curved or corkscrew shapedSpiral3 subdivisions of spiral shape?Vibrio, spirillum, spirocheteCurved or comma shapeVibrioSpiral shape that remains rigid when the cell is in motionSpirillium ("sp-rigid-illum")Spiral shaped that bends when in motionSpirocheteTwo coccus shaped cells clinging togetherDiplococciThree or more cocci, which form a cluster of spherical cellsStaphylococciThree or more cocci that from a chain of round cellsStreptococciCocci that form a grouping of four cellsTetradsTwo bacillus or rod-shaped cells cling together to form a pairDiplobacillusThree or more bacilli attached end-to-end to form a chain of bacilliStreptobacillusRigid framework that determines the size and shape of the living cellCell wallStrict obligate aerobeReguies presence of oxygenStrict obligate anaerobeRequires absence of oxygenStrict obligate parasiteRequires living organic matterStrict obligate saprophyteRequires non-living organic matterCorynbacterium diptheriaeDiptheriaStreptococcus pneumoniaeLobar pneumoniaAsexual reproductionBinary fissionRequire simple inorganic substances; self-feedingAutotrophic bacteriaRequire one or more pre-formed organic compounds for growthHeterotrophic bacteriaKilling or removing of all forms of life. To render incapable of reproduction.SterilizationProcess of destroying pathogenic microorganisms or inhibiting their growth. Death to disease-producing organisms. Taking away or eradicating the agents that cause infection or disease.DisinfectionMean, "to kill"GermicideEndemicPresent at low levels all the timeEpidemicLarge number of people in small timeWorld-wide epidemicPandemicUnchangeable immunity; where the host receives the antigen or antibody from "natural" meansNatural (innate) immunityChangeable immunity; Protection from disease through vaccination and immunization procedures; where the host receives the antigen or the antibody "through a needle" rather than through a natural route.Acquired immunityHaving the disease and recovering from itNaturally acquired - activePlacental transfer of antibodies and from colostrumNaturally acquired - PassiveVaccinesArtificially acquired - activeImmune serumsArtificially acquired - passiveWhat shape bacteria are frequently involved in purulent (pus-forming) lesions?Pyogenic cocciIs staphylococcus a cluster or chain?ClusterIs streptococcus a cluster or chain?ChainCoccus-shaped cells that occur in pairs (lancet-shape) and gram positivePneumococciCoccus shaped cells that occur in pairs (coffee-bean or kidney-bean shape) and gram negativeNeisseriaInfection of inner lining of heart?EndocarditisWhat does enteric mean?Gut or intestinePertussisWhooping coughFrequently found in nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin.Staphylococcus aureusCauses skin abscesses, food poisoning, secondary infections, nosocomial infection, and toxic shock.Staphylococcus aureusCauses septic sore throat, scarlet fever, necrotizing fascitisStreptococcal infectionsLike the staphylococci they are principally characterized by the formation of pusStreptococcus pyogenesPurperal fever, scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, flomerulonephritisStreptococcus pyogenesLobar pneumonia, meningitis, otitis mediaSteptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus or Diplococcus)Usually from normal flora of the mucous membranesNeisseriaNeisseria gonorrhoeaeThe veneral disease gonorrheaNeisseria meningitidis (Meningococcus)MeningitisCommonly in intestinal tract. Shigella and SlamonellaEnterobacteriacaeSalmonella typhiTyphoid feverShigellaBacillary dysentery (highly infectious; found in water polluted with human feces)Causes the plague. primarily a disease of animals, especially rats and wild rodentsYersinia pestisBordatella pertusisWhooping coughFrancisella tularensisTularemia (Principally of hares, rabbits and rodents)Is bacillus aerobic or anaerobic?AerobicIs clostridium aerobic or anaerobic?AnaerobicBacillus anthracisAnthrax - From domesticated and wild animals, particularly herbivores (cutaneous anthrax is most common)Clostridium tetaniLockjaw or tetanusClostridium perfringensGas gangreneClostridium botulinumBotulismCorynebacterium diptheriaeDiptheriaMycobacteriumTuberculosis and leprosyActinomyces israeliiActinomycosis in man and lumpy jaw in cattleMycobacterium tuberculosisTuberculosisVibrio choleraeCholera; rice-water stoolsTreponema pallidumSyphilisBorrelia burgdorferiLyme disease (from tick)Leptospira interrogansWeil's DiseaseCharacterized by high fever lasting for several days and a skin rash.RickettsiaTyphus fever and Rocky Mountain Spotted FeverRickettsiaCoxiella burnettiiQ FeverRickettsia prowazekiiEpidemic typhus fever (louse-borne)Rickettsia typhiEndemic typhus fever (flea-borne)Rickettsia rickettsiiRocky mountain spotted feverWhat is usually caused by the ingestion or inhalation of raw milk?Q feverChlamydia trachomatisTrachoma (inclusion conjunctivitis - in the eyes)Lymphogranuloma venereum (climatic bubo)Venereal disease; enlarged lymph nodes called bubosChlamydia psittaciPsittacosis (Ornithosis or Parrot fever) - from inhalation of dried infected feces or dust from the feathers of birds.VariolaSmallpox - eradicatedRubeolaMeaslesRubellaGerman measles (milder form of Rubeola)Varicella ZosterChickenpoxHerpes zosterShinglesCoxsackieHand, foot and mouth diseaseAcute coryzaCommon coldHydrophobiaRabiesInfectious mononucleosisGlandular feverEpidemic parotitisMumps (Infection in older males is called orchitis and in post puberty females is called oophoritis)Treponema pallidumSpirochete, causative agent of syphilisCholeycystitisInflammed gallbladderWhat type of circulation is where blood is oxygenated. It carries oxygen depleted blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns it oxygenated?PulmonaryWhat is NOT involved in pulmonary circulation?Right ventricleWhat type of circulation is a circuit through the rest of the body and provides oxygenated blood? Carries oxygenated blood away from the heart, to the body, and returns deoxygenated blood to the heart?SystemicWhat is NOT involved in systemic circulation?Pulmonary arteryWhat part of the heart contains papillary muscles and chordae tendonae?VentriclesWhere are the 5 chordae tendonae located?3 in the right ventricle; 2 in the left ventricleWhat is an enlarged organ called?HyperplasiaPulmonary edema is swelling around the?LungsWhat disease is the chancre and gumma related to?SyphilisA fully inflated bladder would be in which of the 9 regions?HypogastricWhat quadrant is the cecum located in?Right inguinalCoxiella burnetii is the causative agent of?Q feverWhat family does coxiellia burnetti in?RickettsiaPseudomembrane is associated with?DiptheriaUlcerative colitis is found in the?Large intestinePus in the pleural cavity is called?EmpyemaRupture of alveoli from obstruction of bronchi?EmphysemaDecrease in white blood cells?LeukopeniaAnatomical guide for the axillary artery?Corocobrachialis muscleReduction in arterial blood supply to an organ is called?IschemiaBy far, the most numerous corpuscle in the body?ErythrocyteChancre and gumma are lesions associated with infection caused by?Treponema pallidumBacteria currently producing endospores is?SporulatingStreptococci, diplobacilli, and spirilla are examples of?BacteriaPeuperal sepsisChildbed feverWhat shape is syphillis?SpiralPertussisWhooping coughNeisseriaOpthalmia neonatorumTularemiaRabbit fever (unbroken skin)Streptococcus pyogenesRheumatic feverWeil's diseaseInfectious jaundiceStreptococcus pneumoniaeCapsulesWhat kind of bacteria is psittacosisChlamydia / lymphogranulomaTyphus fever comes from what type of bacteria?Rickettsia / LicePsittacosisParrot feverJoints that are immovable or allow little movement.SynarthrosesRefers to bones that have grown together and fused, such as the pelvisSymphysisJoints that allow a free range of articulation motion.DiarthrosesJoints are slightly movable and are sutural or fibrous in nature.AmphiarthrosisContinuous tube of the digestive system from the mouth to the anusAlimentary canalHydronephrosisSwelling in a kidney when urine does not drain normallyDisassociation of a substance in solution into ions.IonizationAn atom that has lost or gained an electron, becoming a charged particle.IonSubstances that yield a hydrogen or hydronium ion in waterAcidsSubstances that yield hydroxide ions in waterBasesAmphotericCan be an acid or a baseMeans of access or opening in the body.MeatusBleeding from the nose.EpistaxisLack of blood supply to organIschemiaBlood clotThrombosisBlockage due to a lodging of a floating embolus.EmbolismWhen an overabundance of blood pols in a particular part of the body.HyperemiaLarge number of WBC's.LeukocytosisBlood escaping from vascular system.HemorrhageHematemesisVomitting bloodExcrete chemicals into cavity or blood; ductsExocrineDuctless glands; can secrete directly into bloodEndocrineCan function as endocrine and exocrine, such as the pancreas.HeterocrineSmallest particle of an element.AtomGroup of atoms.MoleculeSimple, single-celled microscopic organism without a nucleus.BacteriaBacterial infection that has spread through the vessels.SepticemiaExists in a sweat land or heair follicle.FuruncleCluster of boilsCarbuncleProcess of destroying any and all life forms on a surface area.SterilizationBacteria group in a spherical or chainlike formStreptococcusSingle-celled animals typically clustered together and referred to as parasites.Pathogenic protozoaPigments that originate from outside the location they infiltrated.ExogenousExcessive blood from a venous obstruction?Passive hyperemiaEnlargement of an organ or tissue caused by an increase in the reproduction rate of its cells?HyperplasiaEnlargement of an organ or tissue from the increase in size of its cells?HypertrophyVomitting blood?HematemesisDecrease in white blood cells?LeukopeniaWhat is not involved in systemic circulation?Pulmonary trunkReduction of blood to an organ?IschemiaWhat is not involved with the positioning of the ear? a. Zygomatic arch b. Mandibular process c. External auditory meatus d. Mandibular fossaMandibular processWhat 4 areas show similarity in bilateral curves?Forehead, cheeks, chin, superior integumentary lipRestorative wax used for modeling facial features?Derma surgery2 basica methods of mixing color illuminations?Additive and subtractiveWhere is the temporal process found?On the zygomatic boneWhat does not lie at right angles?ShadowWhich of the following is not part of the mandible? a. incisive fossa b. alveolar processes c. angulus sulcus d. mental eminenceAngulus sulcusThe width of the face is proportionally equal to the distance between the base of the nose and?Base of chinWhat removes ink?Petroleum jelly and alcoholStrongest chewing muscle?TemporalisLargest antemortem extravascular discoloration?HematomaTrocar guide that has to do with the 5th intercostal space and left mid axillary line?StomachWL of infant trocar?7"OD for adult trocar?3/8"Edema in the peritoneal cavity?AscitesWhat type of discoloration is razor burn?Reaction with embalming chemicalsWhat type of discoloration is gangrene?PathologicalWhat helps hold raised vessels at the top of the surface?SeperatorWhere is ulcerative colitis located?Large intestine