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the making of products from natural resources


an oily, dark-colored, flammable liquid found in the earth, consisting mainly of a mixture of various hydrocarbons. Gasoline, kerosene, fuel oil, paraffin, and lubricants are made from petroleum


A national movement to ban the manufacture, sale, transport, or use of alcoholic beverages


a social reform movement based on improving society through the power of the government


the right to vote


change for the better; improving society's way of life


A major oil discovery in 1901 near Beaumont that began the industrialization of Texas

Texas Railroad Commission

Texas state agency created by James "Jim" Hogg to oversee railroads and which stopped rate fixing, unreasonable shipping costs and other unfair practices.

Boom and Bust

Rise in an economy, followed by a downturn as the economy falls due to items losing value.


a late 19th century political movement demanding that people have a greater voice in government and seeking to advance the interests of farmers, laborers and rural citizens who had not benefited from new industries

Texas Equal Suffrage Association

a group that supported women's right to vote

United Latin American Citizens

fought for rights to Spanish-speaking people


deep bowls in the earth that can hold a lot of oil and natural gases


of or pertaining to a large city, its surrounding suburbs, and other neighboring communities.

Galveston Hurricane

Devastating hurricane that killed more that 8,000 people in Galveston, Texas in 1900; helped spur demands that local and state governments be more responsive to people's needs and then they constructed a sea wall.


the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban

Texas Farmers Union

1902 - A small newspaper editior from Point organized this Union after the failure of the Populists' Party

Farmers' Alliance

A Farmers' organization founded in late 1870s; worked for lower railroad freight rates, lower interest rates, and a change in the governments tight money policy


an association formed by farmers in the last 1800s to make life better for farmers by sharing information about crops, prices, and supplies

Howard Hughes Sr

developed a new type of drill bit called the "rotary drill bit"; this bit made it possible to drill through very hard rock to reach oil deep undergroud.

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