Chapter 5 and 3 terms
Terms in this set (65)
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)
Polish astronomer, physician, and minister remembered as the founder of a scientific revolution marked by the belief that the sun rather than Earth is the center of the solar system
The study of theories of the nature of the universe including the relation of Earth to the rest of the solar system
Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)
Broad-ranging Renaissance scholar who was an artistic genius, engineer, sculptor, and architect. He is also remembered for his careful studies of human anatomy and his artistic skill in capturing human emotions
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
Italian astronomer and physicist remembered for improving the telescope and using it systematically in the observation of the solar system
Literally, Earth centered. Generally refers to the ancient view of Ptolemy tha the earth is the center of the solar system
Literally, Sun centered. Typically refers to the work of Nicolaus Copernicus who taught that the sun is the center of the solar system
Juan Huarte (c. 1530-c. 1592)
One of the first to write on the subjects of individual differences, aptitude, and temperament
Index of Forbidden Books
Generally refers to books forbidden by the Catholic Church because they were regarded as dangerous to faith and morality. Though censorship was practiced from the early days of the church, the Index started in the sixteenth century and continued until 1966
Refers to various means of raising money practiced by the Catholic Church prior to the Reformation. Generally involved payment of money in exchange for a spiritual favor
Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
German astronomer and mathematician who discovered the elliptical or oval-shaped motions of the planets
Martin Luther (1483-1546)
The founder of the Reformation and leader of the Protestant movement. Arguably, Luther contributed to the growth of the empirical spirit by advancing the doctrine of the individual priesthood of the believer, in which people have the right to read and interpret scriptures for themselves
Refers to the application of the principles set forth by Niccolo Machiavelli. Sometimes implies amoral, manipulative attitudes, but, strictly speaking, such an implication is a corruption of the teachings of Machiavelli
Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527)
Founder of modern political science and modern military science. One of the first to emphasize the importance of socialization and the techniques for molding public opinion. He advocated the utility of a descriptive social science
Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592)
Late Renaissance scholar who launched a powerful and influential attack on human knowledge. His skepticism was to have a strong influence on Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes. Montaigne also speculated on a number of psychological topics such as how to rear children, education, motivation, and emotion
Radical Renaissance epistemologist who argued that observational studies should replace old scholastic techniques and blind allegiance to authority
Italian poet, scholar, and moralist who was a founder of Renaissance humanism
Ptolemy (c. 100-c. 165)
Egyptian astronomer, geographer, and mathematician known for an early geocentric cosmology that was widely accepted for over 1,400 years
A sixteenth-century religious movement founded by Martin Luther and motivated by an attempt to reform the Catholic Church. Luther's failure to bring about the changes he desired ultimately led to a major split in the church and the beginnings of Protestantism
Literally, rebirth. That period in history from approximately 1300 to 1600 marked by the rediscovery of Greek classics, a new interest in mathematics, expanding geographic knowledge, and a wider epistemology
Refers to a new interest in human affairs. It was manifested in art as the subject shifted from theological figures to human figures and in music as the subject shifted from the sacred to the secular. In science there was a new interest in physiological and anatomical studies and a general new focus on topics of human concern
Oliva Sabuco (1562-1590)
Late Renaissance writer who emphasized the wisdom of moderation. Sabuco was among the first to understand the role of emotions in physical and psychological health
Julius Caesar Scaliger (1484-1558)
A Renaissance scholar remembered for his work on the kinesthetic and muscle senses. One of the first to emphasize the role of the musculature in cognitive and affective processes
Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564)
Physician and anatomist known for his empirical approach to anatomy based on actual dissections. He revolutionized the study of the human body much as Renaissance explorers such as Columbus and Magellan revolutionized knowledge of geography
Juan Luis Vives (1492-1540)
Spanish humanist who advocated an empirical approach to psychology. His book De Anima et Vita is a rich source of Renaissance thought on psychological topics
a facility purchased by Plato by a park named Academeca in Athens. Plato taught students at this facility, which became known as the Academy. The academy flourished during Plato's life and for hundreds of years after his death.
one of the first Greek philosophers to emphasize the importance of balance to health.
possibly a historical figure, but the name comes from the Greek mythical God Asclepius, son of Apollo. Asclepius was a great physician who, in Greek mythology, was killed by Zeus because he sinned by raising a man from the dead. Many temples were built in honor of Asclepius.
early Greek physician who worked around 500 BCE. He advocated an empirical, rational, and naturalistic approach to medicine. One of the first to practice dissection.
Greek scientist and philosopher and one of the first to advance a theory of organic evolution.
a cosmologist who taught that air is the primal substance and that this substance is transformed into other things through condensation and rarefaction.
daughter of Aristippus and head of the school of philosophy at Cyrene following the death of Aristippus.
student of Socrates who headed the school of Cyrene following the death of Socrates.
the pupil of Plato and one of the great philosophers who is especially noteworthy for his work in physics, biology and psychology. Also founded logic and set forth an original and comprehensive view of causality.
holy book of Zoroastrian
well-known early Chinese philosopher interested primarily in the moral life with a focus on methods that promote personal and interpersonal harmony.
refined the atomic theory set forth earlier by the philosopher Leucippus. Taught that reality was based on atoms and the void. Atoms were thought to be indivisible and invisible. Their basic structures accounted for the nature of the observable material world.
early homeostatic theorist who taught that four basic elements (air, earth, water, fire) combine with two first principles of triangularity. The senses reveal only particular triangles. Love unites and organizes, whereas strife results in disintegration and disorganization.
Eye of the soul
a metaphor employed by Plato to convey the idea that the soul can sometimes apprehend true reality.
Theory of forms
according to Plato, there are universal and true principles comprehended through reason. For example, reason reveals the principles of triangularity. The senses reveal only particular triangles. A goal of education is to uncover the true formal properties of things.
probably active around 480 BCE. Was the first process philosopher, emphasized the idea that only change is real.
sometimes regarded as the Father of Greek Medicine, advanced a thoroughgoing naturalistic account of all illness, both physical and mental. Advanced the first classification system of mental disorders.
an early Chinese philosopher who advanced a thoroughgoing naturalistic philosophy. He is sometimes viewed as the Chinese Artistotle.
a mind-body position advanced by Aristotle, comes from hule, meaning matter and morphe meaning form. Artistotle stressed the interdependence of matter and form. Thus, seeing as a mental process cannot be separated from the physical structure of the eye.
Greek philosopher who lived around 500 BCE. He was the founder of atomic theory later refined by Democritus.
a school near Athens founded by Artistole.
Daugter of Pythagoras and Theana. One of the first to give advice on child rearing.
early philosopher who did his work shortly after to attempt to distinguish between appearance and reality. According to him, senses reveal only appearances, whereas reason leads to real truths. In contrast with Heraclitus, Parmenides emphasized a philosophy of being as opposed to a philosophy of becoming.
a term likely coined by Pythagoras from philo meaning love and Sophia meaning wisdom, hence, the love of wisdom.
the student of Socrates and the teacher of Artistotle. One of the great philosophers of all time remembered, among other things, for his emphasis on the importance of reason as a means of discerning the formal abstract nature of truth. Advanced an early conflict model of mental illness and speculated on numerous psychological topics such as a memory and sensation.
a sophist (teacher) who emphasized the doctrine of relativism. Argued that the world is conditioned by our senses and hence the truth is relative.
The Greek term for soul or mind, Includes mental processes such as thought, memory, sensation, perception and so forth.
an enduring figure in Western intellectual history who did his work around 570 BCE. He is remembered for his emphasis on the importance of quantification and for specific contributions such as the famous Pythagorean theorem. His beliefs in the primacy of reason and the nature of the soul were influential later in the work of Socrates and Plato.
the doctrine that knowledge is not absolute; rather it is a product of human mental processes with all their inherent limitations. Thus, according to the position, truths change as a function of time, place, and circumstance.
teacher of Plato, and so important in Greek thought that all philosophy before him is called pre-Socratic. He reacted against the relativism of Protagoras and taught that reason is the basis of true self-knowledge and is thus an important figure in the history of psychological thought.
a type of teacher in ancient Greece. The sophists often emphasized relativism and how to live successfully. They often offered plausible but fallacious arguments. Hence, terms such as sophistry and sophistic refer to arguments that appear to be sound but are later found to be superficial or fallacious.
an early Greek cosmologist active around 600 BCE. Thales was known for his contention that water is the primordial substance. He was also interested in the problem of movement and the nature of motive forces that make movement possible.
an accomplished philosopher and wife of Pythagoras who played a key role in the educational activities of Pythagorean school.
succeeded Artistotle at the Lyceum. Extended many of Artistole's ideas but emphasized material and efficient causes. He is sometimes regarded as the Father of Botany.
vedic treatises dealing with philosophical and psychological matters.
oldest sacred books of India setting forth many early ideas on psychological matters.
an early Greek philosopher remembered for his epistemological skepticism. He argued that human beings do not have certain knowledge and he scoffed at anthropomorphic concepts of deity.
ancient Chinese concept representing such qualities as force, hardness, masculinity and heat. Contrasts with but also complements the concept of Yin.
ancient Chinese concept representing such qualities as softness, coldness, passivity, and moistness. Contrasts with but also complements the concept of Yang.
major prophet of the Zoroastrian religion.
Zeno of Elea
active around 450 BCE. Was a follower of Parmenides. Remembered for paradoes that supposedly revealed contradictions between reason and the senses. His paradoxes of motion are particularly noteworthy. For example, an arrow on its way toward a target presents a certain paradox. It must first travel half the distance, but then it must travel half the remaining distance. Because Zeno thought it possible to divide forever, the arrow should never reach its target.