I&FD Ch.7

natural selection
the belief that nature selects the best adapted varieties of species to survive and reproduce
sexual selection
a form of natural selection that happens in two ways: (1) members of one sex compete among themselves for opportunities to mate, thereby "out-reproducing" other competitors; and (2) a sex chooses to mate with a specific, more preferable person
evolutionary theory
the evolutionary theory for mate selection purports that we choose mates for the sole purpose of ensuring reproductive success-and thus the success of the species and society
fertility cues
when seeking mates, men will select women who possess certain fertility cues, such as youth, attractiveness, and permissiveness
protector/provider cues
women tend to seek out a mate who possesses protector/provider cues, such as intelligence, physical strength, and ambition
Social exchange theory
this theory centers on the exchange of people's material or symbolic resources, asserting that individuals act out of self-interest to capitalize on the resources they possess
benefits exchanged in a social relationship.
the inverse or opposite of reward. Can be experienced as punishments due to individuals engaging in one behavior or another
matching hypothesis
the premise that most of us want a socially desirable person regardless of our own degree of social desirability
filter theory of mate selection
this theory suggest that individuals use a filtering mechanism that helps them sort out a potential mate from the vast pool of candidates
pool of candidates
eligible relationship partners
refers to geographical closeness; one cannot interact with someone if one is not in the same geographical region
partnering with someone similar in ethnic and racial background, religious upbringing, age, education level, political ideology, socioeconomic status, and values and beliefs
a requirement to marry outside of a particular group. in the U.S., for example, we cannot marry a sibling or, in some states, a first cousin
refers to marrying within one's same group, such as Muslims marrying Muslims, Catholics marrying Catholics, etc
refers to partners who are of different races, religions, or ethnicities
pair bonds
a couple who is emotionally bonded to one another, which characterizes the couple's union
socially prescribed forms of conduct that guide or groom young men and women toward matrimony
socializing for any number of reasons, such as for relaxation and escape from everyday responsibilities or to pursue a relationship to determine whether the partner is a potential spouse or a partner for a life-long relationship
script theory
the idea that individuals use scripts that help us organize the information in our environments
cultural scripts
common guidelines that provide instructions about what behaviors and emotions are expected in certain situations
intrapsychic scripts
sexual scripts that account for individual desires, fantasies, emotions, and intentions while at the same time considering the interpersonal responses of others.
interpersonal scripts
sexual scripts that recognize how different people interact and relate to each other within specific social situations
dating scripts
the models that guide our dating interactions
speed dating
a quick meeting that allows people to meet each other face to face to decide if they share mutual interests and if they are interested in another, more extended, date.
online dating
using the internet as a tool in the process of finding a mate
hooking up
physical or sexual interaction with the absence of commitment or affection
friends with benefits/booty call
a term used to describe one who has regular sex with another, but does not relate to that peson as a boyfriend or girlfriend.
Knapp's relationship escalation model
describes how relationships are initially formed and how they progress over time: initiation, experimenting/exploration, intensification, integrating, and bonding/intimacy
duck's relationship filtering model
similar to the filter model of mate selection, Stephen Duck proposed that when deciding whether to enter into or continue an interpersonal relationship, we have a set of filters through which we sort information: sociological or incidental cue, preinteraction cues, interaction cues, and cognitive cues.
sociological/incidental cue
the first filter of Stephen Duck's system, this relates to the restrictions and limitations placed on one's ability to meet people. these cues speak to one's sociological location or position, or the places where one lives and works
preinteraction cue
these cues provide at-a-glance information that helps us decide whether we would even consider wanting a date with a certain person. outward attractiveness would be an example
interaction cue
these cues allow us to assess whether we want to get to know a person any better. as we interact, we gain a better idea of the extent to which we may want to relate to a person
cognitive cue
if we discover that we want to spend more time with a person, we may then rely on cognitive cues. we get to know another's personality traits, beliefs, goals, and aspirations, as well as the roles they play in life. at this point, after much self-disclosure and time, we decide to pursue a deeper relationship and enter into a committed partnership
this can mean different things to different people. for many, it's until-death-do-us-part component of a couple's relationship. it speaks to relationship longevity, stability, quality, and satisfaction.
personal commitment
refers to the feelings, thoughts, and beliefs we have about a spouse, life mate, or significant other. It's reflected in the sense of connection, liking, fondness, affection, tenderness, warmth, and love that couples feel for each other
moral commitment
moral commitment refers to each person's values and belief systems. before committing to or ending a relationship, individuals consciously weigh what is right and what is wrong, guided by their value/belief/religious framework
structural commitment
those commitments bound by institutions such as marriage
relational transgressions
hurtful words or actions that communicate a devaluation of the partner or the relationship
distress reactions
reactions to a breakup that include such things as physical and emotional pain, loss of interest in sex, and guilt
protest reactions
behaviors and feelings that attempt to reestablish a relationship, such as trying to reinvolve the ex-partner in sexual relations
to live together as if a married couple
common law marriage
a relationship comprised of cohabiting heterosexual partners, but no legal marriage ceremony has taken place; however, the couple holds themselves out to the world that they are husband and wife