Theatre Appreciation Test #2 (Acting and Directing - Chapters 4 and 5)
Terms in this set (125)
The concept of modern directing did not come about until _______ with __________.
Duke of Saxe-Meiningen
What was the concept of actor-manager?
The person would be both an actor that owned their own theatre company and possibly managed a venue.
The concept of actor-manager came about in the...?
True or False: The concept of actor-manager lived well on past the 1720s.
The earliest example of the actor-manager was...?
Garrick was the manager of what theatre?
Drury Lane Theatre
True or False: Shakespeare became commercialized and popular thanks to David Garrick's productions.
True or False: Directors should only choose to work on shows that they are truly passionate about.
The characters that actors portray are the _______ of the play, while the director's ______ holds the play together.
The director's word is...
The primary assistant to the director is the...
What are the steps for putting on a show?
1. Concept Meeting (Director provides vision to designers)
2. Audition (Initial)
3. Callbacks (Stage manager assists)
4. Blocking (Movements recorded in a prompt book by stage manager as called out by director to actors)
5. Technical Rehearsal (Introduces all technical elements)
6. Dress Rehearsal (Costume and makeup introduced)
7. Previews (Rehearsal performed in front of a live audience)
8. Opening Night (Open t the public and critics, fully run by the stage manager every night)
True or False: Stage managers are members of Equity even if they never choose to perform.
Casting to type refers to...
casting the show the way the playwright intended
Type casting refers to...
casting actors in the same type of role
What is a prompt book?
The director's copy of the play, complete with all the blocking.
True or False: When a play opens, a director can stay or go because the success of the show is up to the stage manager.
True or False: The stage manager only calls out tech cues over headsets during certain performances, but not all.
True or False: One should always use a pen during blocking.
False; always pencil
Who is the producer?
The person who provides all of the funds to put on the show.
True or False: Cameron Macintosh has used his own money to put on a show only 3 times.
Who leads weekly production meetings?
The stage manager
Who is the limited partner?
A broker who buys stock in a show.
Who is the angel?
A person who will provide 100% of the money for the show (as well as decide upon the venue and acquire all of the tech gear requires) in exchange for 50% of the profits.
Who is the dramaturg?
A person who reads over plays and summarizes them to be presented to the producer to help them decide which show to put on.
What is the 60/40 Rule?
Refers to the performance license payment for each show; $60 for the first performance, $40 for all subsequent performances.
True or False: A producer may decide to gain the exclusive right to put on a performance for a certain period of time (usually a year) and potentially renew it.
Which show did Samuel French have on hold for a number of years?
Peter Pan the Musical
What are producers responsible for?
1. Actor contracts
2. Actors needs
3. Publicity items
Why are ticket sales supervised?
Because people may use petty cash to buy them so that they can broker the tickets for profit.
What does ICE stand for?
Incidental Company Expenses
Who originated the role of Christine in Andrew Lloyd Webber's "Phantom of the Opera"?
What does it mean if a work is in the public domain?
The work is no longer protected by copyright and belongs to the public as a whole.
The two types of tours are...
1. National (Exact replica of the BW original)
2. Bus/Truck Tours (Single night performances; may or may not have Equity actors)
Les Mis did how many national tours?
The 3 aspects of vocal technique are...
1. Volume (Loudness)
2. Projection (Ability to be heard in the whole auditorium; director may use a clicker during rehearsal so actors know when they can't be heard.
3. Articulation (Speaking clearly)
The two language variations are...
-Speaking with the lilt of a foreign tongue
-A regional variation within the accent that often uses slang.
In British, a subway is a...
In British, an umbrella is a...
In British, rain boots are...
In British, a teddy bear is a...
What are the tips for line memorization?
1. Record yourself reading the lines out loud and listen to the playback.
2. Physically write out all your lines.
3. Do the first line every time as you do each line until completion.
What is the key to memorization?
What are some performance and rehearsal tips?
1. Be off-book early.
2. If you blank in rehearsal, "call for line".
3. Be flexible if things go wrong onstage.
4. Don't consume alcohol EVER.
5. Don't upstage another actor.
6. Master the Illusion of the First Time.
Forgetting a line
Intentionally pulling focus away from another actor
What does it mean to "break the Proscenium Arc"?
To leave the world of the play and enter the world of the audience; also known as breaking the 4th wall.
Who is known as the father of modern directing?
The Duke of Saxe-Meiningen
What contributions did Meiningen make?
1. Box Set (Realistic Scenery)
2. Historically accurate costumes
3. Realistic acting approach
4. Realistic crowd scenes
After seeing one of Meiningen's shows, this director was inspired to create "method acting".
What are the characteristics of method acting?
1. Method acting is often misunderstood and took a while to spread and catch on.
2. Most American actors are fans of the method, while Brits are not due to their Shakespearian upbringing.
3. The main place to study method acting was the Actor's Studio in New York in the 1940s.
Who taught method acting at the Actor's Studio?
Lee Strasburg, who taught Paul Newman, Ava Gabor, and Marlin Brando.
Techniques of method acting include:
1. Private Moment Exercises
2. The Magic If
3. Circle of Attention
What is a Private Moment Exercise?
Actors do something publicly that they would normally do in private to get over their inhibitions.
What is the Magic If?
An actor asks themselves hypothetical questions about their character and their motives to get over inhibitions.
What is the illusion of the First Time?
The performance must appear brand new every time it is done.
What is the Circle of Attention?
An actor draws an imaginary circle around them self (one that moves as they move) that enlarges through rehearsal only by discovering things that matter to the character.
Who is the director?
The person responsible for the overall unity of a production and for coordinating the work of contributing artists.
The American director is the equivalent of the British ______ and French _______.
With each decision made by the director, they _______, determine its ________, and determine whether _______.
shape the arc of the show
style and pace
the ultimate experience will be satisfactory for the audience
Who is the stage manager?
The person who communicates the breadth of the director's conceptual vision daily with every production area to clarify ongoing production and rehearsal choices.
True or False: All directors get formal training from conservatory.
False; some get it from experience as actors
The 3 types of directing approaches are...
List the characteristics of traditional directing.
1. Foundation of the director's work is an attraction and understanding of the script.
2. If the play is new, director and playwright will have meetings to make revisions.
3. Director analyzes the script in a number of ways, sometimes the Stanisklavski "spine method".
4. Director determines whether the style of the show will be realistic or nonrealistic.
5. Director develops a directional concept that spurts from appropriate show vision.
6. Assisted by the dramaturg to find the right script
What is the spine?
A working hypothesis that gives the director a foundation on which to base their analysis by determining the goal (or primary objective) of the characters in the play both collectively and individually.
What is naturalism?
A sub genre of realism that attempts to put on stage exact copies of everyday life in order to show how people are products of heredity and environment.
What is heightened realism?
A sub genre of realism that intends to portray the characters and their activities realistically but with a certain creative license.
What is allegory?
The representation of an abstract theme or subject through characters, action, and other concrete elements of a play.
What is expressionism?
A subgenere of nonrealism that attempts to depict the subjective state of a character (i.e outward expression of inward feelings) or group of characters through such nonrealistic techniques as distortion, striking images, and poetic language.
True or False: The style should be appropriate for the play and consistent throughout every aspect of the production in order to imprint and signaturize the entire production.
The three ways to embody the spine are...?
1. Period and Location
2. Central Image/Metaphor
3. Authentic Purpose
List the characteristics of auteur directing.
1. The director makes it their responsibility to shape every element in the production, including the script.
One of the most important auteur directors was...?
List the characteristics of postmodern directing.
1. Overlaps with auteur directing.
2. Features script deconstruction and abandonment of a linear structure (replacement with segments and tableaux)
What is casting?
Fitting performers into roles for which their personalities and physical characteristics are best suited.
What is type casting?
The casting of a performer that closely resembles in real life the character to be enacted.
What is casting against type?
Deliberately putting someone in a role that did not appear to be right for the part.
True or False: Casting has historically been apart of the acting process.
False; most theatre companies had the same actors play the same role.
What is blocking?
Patterns of a performers' movements onstage with respect to each other and to the stage space.
What is a visual composition?
Stage pictures that are created by the director to convey all that needs to be shown to the audience.
The director must determine the show's ___________, ________, and ________ with ______, ________, and ________.
movement, pace, rhythm
clarity, efficiency, variety
What is the technical rehearsal?
Held just before public performances begin, performers are in costume with full scenery and lighting for the first time in a full, start-to-finish run through.
What is the dress rehearsal?
Held after tech but just before previews, first full performances of a production with full involvement of the performers and technical components.
What are previews?
Tryout performances of a production before an audience, preceding the official "opening" performance.
The noncommercial version of a producer is...?
executive director or managing director
Most noncommercial theatres are organized by...
a board of directors, an artistic director, and an executive director.
What are the two ways of classifying actors?
A.) Personality actor
-Roles tend to embody or reflect their own personality
B.) Character actor
-Roles are a variety with great depth
A.) Internal actor
-Takes a psychological approach
-Linked to method acting
B.) External actor
-Takes a surface (on-off) approach)
What are the two auditioning types?
-Audition material is prepared ahead of time, which allows for comfort but can also make the actor inflexible
B.) Cold Read
-Audition material is presented to the actor at the time of the audition, which removes the comfort but allows them to show their quick mind and flexibility
A.) Open Audition
-Open to anyone
B.) Closed Audition
-Open only to actors with union membership
What are callbacks?
Invitational auditions that occur after the initial audition.
What are cattle calls?
Auditions that are looking for a large number of actors and are quite short.
What is the role of the union?
To protect the artist and their work, as well as negotiate contracts.
What are the two actor's unions?
1. Actors' Equity Association (Equity) - STAGE
2. SAG-AFTRA - FILM, TV, RADIO
What are a few common stipulations of the union?
1. Actors for the stage are required to be fed 3 hot meals a day if they are doing a matinee and evening performance.
2. Actors are entitled to have a cot in their dressing room to sleep.
3. Actors are to be compensated extra for nudity.
4. An actors name is protected.
5. Actors are allowed one waiver project -- a TV show or film that is done without union membership.
Most actors have an....?
What is a read through?
The first rehearsal with the whole cast, in which the show is read out loud.
The use of something onstage as you would in real life.
One of the practical set pieces of Deathtrap that MUST be there is...?
What is cinema verate?
A popular film style of the 70s and 80s in which film was captured with no manipulation.
Who is Sydney Bruhl?
The well-tended, brilliant and possibly gay master playwright full of one liners.
Who is Myra Bruhl?
The victim of Sydney and Clifford's crime, and Sydney's wife.
Who is Clifford Anderson?
The protege and accomplice
Who is Helga Ten Dorp?
Who is Porter Milgrim?
Where is Deathtrap set?
Westport, Connecticut in October 1978
Ira Levin is best known for...
"Rosemary's Baby" and "Stepford Wives"
Deathtrap is a _____, which falls under the popular 19th century style of _______.
The show relies on...
suspense and special effects (i.e background music)
The shortest scene in the show is ________, in which _______.
Act II, Scene III
The curtain falls and the audience is left to wonder how the story ends (i.e a cliffhanger)
Deathtrap makes real-life references to...
1. Sleuth, Dial M, and the Murder Game
2. Michael Caine (who would play Sydney in the movie
3. George S. Kaufman, Playwright
The two examples of acting in daily life are...
1. Imitation - The act of simulation or copying behavior observed in real life.
2. Role Playing - The acting out of a particular role by copying the expected social behavior of the position.
The two types of roles in daily life are...
What is the main difference between acting onstage and real life?
Actors are ALWAYS being observed and are required to play roles or engage in experiences outside of their own lives and ability.
The three main challenges that have faced theatrical performers are...
1. To make characters believable
2. Physical acting
3. Synthesis and integration
Stanislavski (who created method acting) used reeducation to train actors. What is reeducation?
Requires the following:
2. Concentration and Observation
3. Recognize the Importance of Specifics
4. Find the Inner Truth (i.e Magic If)
5. Have Action With Purpose
6. Develop a Through Line Of the Role
7. Maintain An Ensemble
What is emotional recall?
A method that helps performers to present realistic emotions by recalling the condition surrounding a personal event that led to a similar emotion.
What was Cohen's content-less scene?
A method that encourages actors to use the same body of text but change the circumstances of the scene each time to emphasize the importance of solid circumstances.
What was Benedette's outside method?
A method that forces actors to find their "outer" body before their emotions.
What was Vsevold Meyerhold's biomechanics method?
A physical and vocal technique that emphasizes full control of the body in the manner of circus performers.
_____ is a common Asian theatre discipline.
What is centering?
The place where all of the lines of force of the body come together to achieve balance, freedom, and flexibility.
What is the purpose of synthesis and integration?
To create an actor that is internally and externally flexible and disciplined.
True or False: Charisma, personality, and star power can be taught.
What is the viewpoints theory?
A contemporary theory that combines elements of dance and stage movement with concepts of time and space.
When did physical movement training become most widespread in the U.S.?
The 21st century