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Test 3 Ch 10,11,12,14
Terms in this set (182)
confusion of an event that happened to someone else with one that happened to you, or belief that you remember something when it never actually happened
What's the best way to think about memory?
It's a kaleidoscope, with an overall image assembled from bits and fragments of information
Becky fondly remembers seeing her favorite band in concert in the late 1990's. She was such a fan she collected newspaper clippings about the group, swapped stories with other fans about concerts they'd been to, and watched the band whenever it preformed on television. As time passed it occurred to Becky that she had a hard time distinguishing her personal memories of a particular concert from other information she'd accumulated over the years. Becky is falling prey to
Marlo has heard many times about how, when she was 3 years old, she smashed both her hands into her chocolate birthday cake. It's a favorite family story, usually told whenever there's a gathering of relatives and especially at birthdays. One day Marlo is flopping through a scrapbook and finds photos of herself, clearly dated on her third birthday, with a pristine strawberry cake in front of her. Photo after photo shows the cake nor any chocolate in sight. Why did Marlo hold a false memory for so many years?
hearing a detailed story many times contributes to confabulation of memory
Eyewitnesses are especially likely to make mistaken identifications when:
the suspect's ethnicity is different from their own.
Which of the following statements would be the best one to ask when interviewing a child about an alleged victimization?
"Tell me why you came to talk to me today."
conscious, intentional recollection of an event or of an item of information
the ability to retrieve and reproduce from memory previously encountered material
the ability to identify previously encountered material
unconscious retention in memory, as evidenced by the effect of a previous experience or previously encountered information on current thoughts or actions
a method for measuring implicit memory in which a person reads or listens to information and is later tested to see whether the information affects performance on another type of task
a method for measuring retention that compares the time required to relearn material with the time used in the initial learning of the material
a model of memory in which knowledge is represented as connections among thousands of interacting processing units, distributed in a vast network, and all operating in parallel. Also called a connectionist model
parallel distributed processing (PDP) model
the ability to retrieve inforation from memory and reproduce it is called
Claude is studying 100 terms and definitions for his upcoming chemistry test. It takes him 8 hours to rifle through the list on the first day, 4 hours to go through the last on the third day. What method of measuring implicit memory is Claude using?
The relearning method
Alberta solved a crossword puzzle a few days ago. She no longer recalls the words in the puzzle but while playing a game of scrabble, she unconsciously tends to form words that were in the puzzle, showing that she has _____ memories of some of the words.
The three basic memory processes are_____, storage, and _____.
The three memory systems in the three-box model of memory are _____, short-term memory, and ____.
sensory register/ long-term memory
a memory system that momentarily preserves extremely accurate images of sensory information
in the three-box model of memory, a limited-capacity memory system involved in the retention of information for brief periods; it is also used to hold information retrieved from long-term memory for temporary use
a meaningful unit of information; it may be composed of smaller units
in many models of memory, a cognitively complex form of short-term memory; it involves active mental processes that control retrieval of information from long-term memory and interpret that information appropriately for a given task
in the three-box model of memory, the memory system involved in the long-term storage of information
long-term memory (LTM)
memories for the performance of actions of skills ("knowing how")
memories of facts, rules, concepts, and events ("knowing that"); they include semantic and episodic memories
memories of general knowledge, including facts, rules, concepts, and propositions
memories of personally experienced events and the contexts in which they occured
the tendency for recall of the first and last items on a list to surpass recall of items in the middle of the list
The _____ holds images for a fraction of a second
visual sensory register
Short-term memory can contain information for up to ______ by many estimates
The most appropriate unit for measuring the capacity of short-term memory is
Your knowledge of how to dance the hokey-pokey is an example of
Ray is introduced to a bunch of people at a business meeting: Charles, Aldo, Mary, Frank, Candace, Aileen, Ronnie, Keith, Mark, Susanna, Jay, Sophie, Mario, and Rick. According to the primacy effect, whose names should he remember the easiest?
Charles, Aldo, and Mary
a long-lasting increase in the strength of synaptic responsiveness, thought to be a biological mechanism of long-term memory
the process by which a memory becomes durable and stable
long-term potential is associated with
increased responsiveness of certain receiving neurons to transmitting neurons
The process by which a long-term memory become durable and relatively stable is called
The cerebellum has been associated with _____ memories; the hippocampus has been associated with _____ memories
procedural / declarative
The frontal lobes seem to play a particular role in
short-term memory and working memory tasks
how do hormone levels contribute to the retention of information?
moderate hormone levels are optimal for learning new tasks.
strategies and tricks for improving memory, such as the use of a verse or a formula
rote reputation of material in order to maintain its availability in memory
association of new information with already stored knowledge and analysis of the new information to make it memorable
in the encoding of information, the procession of meaning rather than simply the physical or sensory features of a stimulus
ROYGBIV is an example of____
accurate_____ is the first step toward effective memory retention
Information will rapidly fade from short-term memory unless we engage in
_____ rehearsal involves the rote repetition of material, whereas_____ rehearsal involves associating new material with material that has already been learned
Rollie is trying to learn a list of terms for his upcoming anatomy exam. Small intestine he reads. My Uncle Bob has had trouble with his small intestine; Bobs small intestine. Transverse colon' hmmm, our neighbors are from the town of colon, Panama, and they transversed their way here. Rectum; I remember when we were kids, my little brother took my Hot Wheels cars and wrecked them. What information-processing strategy is Rollie using?
the theory that information in memory eventually disappears if it is not accessed; it applies better to short-term than to long-term memory
forgetting that occurs when recently learned material interferes with the ability to remember similar material stored previously
forgetting that occurs when previously stores materials interferes with the ability to remember similar, more recently learned material.
the inability to retrieve information stored in memory because of insufficient cues for recall
cue dependent forgetting
the tendency to remember something when the rememberer is in the same physical or mental state as during the original learning or experience
the tendency to remember experiences that are consistent with one's current mood and overlook or forget experiences that are not
the partial or complete loss of memory for important personal information
in psychoanalytic theory, the selective, involuntary pushing of threatening or upsetting information into the unconscious
the inability to remember events and experiences that occurred during the first 2 or 3 years of life
During the late 1800s Herman Ebbinghaus memorized long lists of nonsense syllables (such as gel, bow, or jet) and tested his recall over varying time delays. According to his results, when did the greatest amount of forgetting occur?
within the first 2 days after the initial learning took place
Alan learned to play the entire Led Zeppelin catalog on the guitar when he was in high school; pretty much every song, for better or worse, with fairly good results. As time passed and he pursued other musical interests, he stopped playing those songs. Decades later when trying to recall how to play one of those tunes, he found that he was thoroughly stumped, and couldn't even remember where to begin. What theory of forgetting would predict this kind of outcome?
When new information interferes with the ability to remember old information, ______ interference has taken place
Which of these notions would be great with the most skepticism by psychological scientists?
Which type of memory is not encoded very well in children under the age of 4?
The inability to distinguish an actual memory from information gathered through other sources is called?
can be just as strong, vivid, and retained for long periods of time as actual memories
The detective instructed the eyewitness, "Tell me which of the African American men you're about to see in the lineup stole your purse. They all have past criminal records for one offense or another." Th witness recalled that the perpetrator had dark skin, but he might have been African American, Brazilian, Sri Lankan, or Haitian. Based on what you know about eyewitness identification, what is the witness likely to do?
misidentify one of the men in the lineup as the perpetrator
A kindergartener is asked by a low-enforcement official, "Do you rememeber the time when your teacher slapped a student from another class because the boy walked into your room by accident and disrupted the lesson?" Although there is scant evidence that this event ever happened, what is the kindergartner likely to say n response?
"Yes, I remember that."
Under most circumstances, which is an easier memory-retrieval task to perform
Which of the following is a complementary challenge to the three-box model of memory
Parallel distributed processing
mind as sieve hypothesis
parallel distributed processing
most estimates of the time information can stay in the auditory sensory register put the duration at about
How does the concept of working memory differ from traditional views of short-term memory?
the working-memory model includes short-term memory storage and the operations performed on information as it gets retrieved from long-term memory
Carly remembers that St. Paul is the capital of Minnesota. Shannon remembers that she loved in St. Paul when she was 9 years old. Carly is demonstrating_____ memory, whereas Shannon is demonstrating _____ memory.
"Cells that fire together, wire together." This expression (not taken literally) might describe which process that takes place among hippocampal cells during learning and memory formation?
A kind of "memory filing cabinet" important to the formation and retrieval of memories that might be stored in various locations throughout the brain, is the
Which hormones, released by the adrenal glands, can enhance memory during appropriate circumstances?
epinephrine and norepinephrine
Madison wants to remember the telephone number of the man she just met, so she repeats it over and over to keep it in short-term memory: 555-3825...55-3825...555-3825. What rehearsal strategy is Madison using?
Cue-dependent forgetting occurs wen
We lack retrieval cues total up appropriate information from memory
The proposed mechanism that produces traumatic amnesia is_____; like the concept of traumatic amnesia itself, this mechanism is also controversial
Which of the following is not a compelling explanation for childhood amnesia?
the amygdala and the hippocampus synchronize with one another to encode episodic memories, and both structures take approximately 3 years to develop maturity
refers to the process of assembling information from stored knowledge when a clear or coherent memory of specific events does not exist. For example, an interviewer may work with crime victim to assemble a memory of the traumatic events surrounding a crime
one of the four sins of memory as studied by Harvard psychologist Schacter, refers to the ability to remember information correctly, but being wrong about the source of that information. For example, an eyewitness confidently points out a man in a lineup as the bank robber when he was actually driving a bus that was passing the eyewitness at the same time as the bank robbery. The possibility of Misattribution has to be considered in legal situations so that innocent people are not accused of wrongdoing
The sudden onset of a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event. When you are trying to remember something and then it "all of a sudden comes to you", you have experienced a
a memory disorder that causes people to have inaccurate memories. These inaccuracies may range from distortion of minor details, to complete fabrication of the entire memory. The disorder is known to be caused by brain damage such as from an aneurysm, or dementia from such conditions as Alzheimer's Disease. People who confabulate are not lying, they have no intention to deceive, and they are not even aware that they are giving wrong information
the image of the event contains many details, or the event is easy to imagine
the suspect's ethnicity differs from that of the witness
leading questions are put to witnesses
witnesses are given misleading information
eyewitness testimony is vulnerable when
also known as declarative memory is a type of long-term memory in which we store memories of fact. In addition, explicit memory is divided further into semantic and episodic memories (please look those up for complete definitions). So, if you have memories of things such as when Columbus sailed to America or what day and time your baby brother was born, you have explicit memories
identifying something you learned previously and is therefore stored in some manner in memory. For example, taking a multiple choice test requires you to identify material you learned and not necessarily "recall" information learned previously
also known as nondeclarative memory, involves recollection of skills, things you know how to do, preferences, etc., that you don't need to recall consciously. For example, if you know how to ride a bike and you can do so without having to think about it, you are demonstrating implicit memory
a framework used by cognitive psychologists to explain and describe mental processes. The model likens the thinking process to how a computer works.
encoding, storage, and retrieval of information
Information processing model
model mental and behavioral phenomena in the context of interconnected networks rather than as discrete fields
Parallel Distributed Processing/ connectionist model
momentarily retains sensory information in the form of sensory images
info that doesn't quickly go onto short-term memory vanishes forever
retains new info for up to 30 seconds
the material is no longer an exact sensory image and is an encoding of one such as a word or phrase
the material either transfers int long-term memory or decays and is lost forever
Short term memory
a way of organizing information into familiar groupings. This is done with all sorts of information, including numbers, single words, and multiple-word phrases which are collapsed into a single word, to create acronyms.
permits us to control attention, resist distraction, and maintain info in an active accessible state
vast amount of info stored here
allows us to learn, get around in the environment, build a sense of identity and a personal history, but it must be organized to make it manageable
shows that words are also indexed in terms of sound and form
Tip of the Tongue
the most basic and primitive form of memory. As the name implies, this is the type of memory we have for "procedures" or for basic associations between stimuli and responses. For example, the process or procedure for riding a bike. Once you've learned this procedure (ie, made the association between the stimulus and appropriate responses) it is stored as a procedural memory. You've learned to respond with the appropriate set of behaviors and adapted properly to your environment
also known as explicit memory, is a type of long-term memory in which we store memories of fact. In addition, declarative memory is divided further into semantic and episodic memories (please look those up for complete definitions). So, if you have memories of things such as when Columbus sailed to America or what day and time your baby brother was born, you have declarative memories.
one of the three types of long-term memory (the others are episodic and procedural) in which we store general world knowledge like facts, ideas, words, problem solving, etc
the type of long-term, declarative memory in which we store memories of personal experiences that are tied to particular times and places. For example, if you are having a conversation with a friend and you tell your friend, "last night I went to a 9:00 movie..." you are recalling information stored in episodic memory. This type of memory is often what comprises eye-witness testimony and is especially susceptible to subsequent events like questioning, reading the newspaper, talking to others about the event, etc
memory-related term and refers to the tendency to recall information that is presented first and last (like in a list) better than information presented in the middle. Sometimes I experience this when I go to the store and don't write a list. My wife tells me the things we need and I try to remember them by rehearsing them (I say the list over and over). This keeps the information in short-term memory longer. But in the time it takes me to get to the store and then with all the distractions of getting items, looking at labels, etc., I tend to remember the items that were first on the list (probably because I rehearsed them so much) and the last items (probably because those were the ones I heard most recently) but always forget the ones in the middle. I guess I should write them down, huh
the tendency for the first items presented in a series to be remembered better or more easily, or for them to be more influential than those presented later in the series. If you hear a long list of words, it is more likely that you will remember the words you heard first (at the beginning of the list) than words that occurred in the middle. This is the primacy effect. You should also note that you will be likely to remember words at the end of the list more than words in the middle, and this is called the recency effect.
the principle that the most recently presented items or experiences will most likely be remembered best. If you hear a long list of words, it is more likely that you will remember the words you heard last (at the end of the list) than words that occurred in the middle. This is the recency effect. You should also note that you will be likely to remember words at the beginning of the list more than words in the middle, and this is called the Primacy Effect
primarily a Neuropsychology term, referring to a process in which information is stored in various parts of the brain and then put together fairly quickly to "recall" an event or memory. The neurons in one part of the brain establish pathways or connections to neurons elsewhere so that even if one part is destroyed, other types of memory could be preserved
formation, consolidation and retrieval of emotional memories occurs in this area of the brain
brain area active with short term and working memory
encoding words and images in frontal cortex of this brain area
long term declarative memories, plays role in higher level cognitive processes, procedural memories
hormones that enhance memory
epinephrine and norepinephrine
for example: learning new info in a college class
less effort required, less conscious
association of items with stored or factual information, analysis of the physical, sensory, semantic features of an item
trying to remember a list without comparing to other info
looking at the content at a level of meaning
not taking meaning into account and just processing info
occurs when info in sensory and short-term memory is replaced with new info because the old info was not being accessed or recalled
the woman who cannot forget
failure to remember info without cues
overlap or present and past cues causes this to occur
when a person has difficulty recalling old information because of newly learned information. For example, you may have difficulty skiing because of recently learning how to snowboard.
Difficulty in learning new information because of already existing information. For example, an English speaking person may have greater difficulty learning Spanish because of his or her tendency to want to apply English grammar to the new language. Some people have a harder time learning how to drive an automatic vehicle because of their preexisting knowledge of how to drive a stick shift. The driver may want to use his or her left foot for the break where they are used to having the clutch. The same person may have learned to drive an automatic more easily without his or her knowledge of a standard car.
Recall from long-term memory that is dependent on certain cues from our physical states
indicates that, when humans store memories, they not only store the event, but they also store a memory of the mood they were in at the time. For this reason, when we feel happy we recall other happy memories. Likewise, when we feel depressed we remember other unhappy events. For this reason, it is easier to remember events when a person is in the same state of mind as when the memory was stored.
the forgetting of important personal info, inability to recall past events
involves a loss of personal identity and has psychological causes, rare
originated with Freud, we forget traumatic events for a long period of time and then remember vividly
age that most people cannot accurately recall events before
However, if you are working at a job because you get a great feeling of personal satisfaction from it, and you are trying to perform the behavior for its own sake (not for money), then you are
motivated to perform specific behaviors to achieve promised outside rewards or to avoid punishment from others.
If you have intense feelings (positive feelings) toward the other person to the point of really being wrapped up in the other person, you have
a deep, mature, affectionate attachment between people who love each other, like each other, and respect each other
intimacy commitment passion
Sternberg's theory of love
focus on learning, mastering the task according to self-set standards or self-improvement. It also encompasses developing new skills, improving or developing competence, trying to accomplish something challenging and trying to gain an understanding or insight
short-term objectives set for specific duties or tasks in your current job position. These goals are usually related to the overall company goals or specific department goals where you work. They help you know what is expected of you in your position.
Ekman's facial expressions
sadness contempt anger disgust surprise fear
the process in which facial muscles send messages to the brain about the basic emotion being expressed
brain area responsible for initially evaluating the emotional importance of incoming sensory information, especially involved in fear
provides the cognitive ability to override the amygdala's initial appraisal
appear to be specialized for the motivation to approach others as with happiness and anger
Regions of the left prefrontal cortex
are specialized for withdrawal or escape as with disgust and fear
Regions of the right prefrontal region
activated when people observe others, involved in empathy, imitation, synchrony, and mood contagion
regulate how and whether people express their emotions; a social group or culture's informal norms about how to appropriately express emotions. The norms of a group not only identify when and where it is appropriate to express emotions but also the extent at which these emotions are expressed.
cry at funeral, smile at wedding
observed that if a stressor persists it may overwhelm the body's ability to cope and illness may result
When under stress the hypothalamus sends messages to the (2)
1. autonomic nervous system-adrenal medulla-secrete epinephrine/norepinephrine
2. pituitary-adrenal cortex-secretes cortisol and other hormones
two ways of getting rid of negative emotions
confession and forgiveness
targets the causes of stress in practical ways which tackles the problem or stressful situation that is causing stress, consequently directly reducing the stress. more effective
problem focused coping
venting the emotions caused by the problem, less effective
emotion focused coping
3 effective cognitive coping methods
reappraisal of the situation
learning from the experience, and
making social comparisons
Relationships and social groups provide individuals with a sense of
20th century traditional philosophy that focuses on the an individual person is supposed to find their "authentic existence" in the world as they face choices and decisions in daily life. At the heart of this view is the perspective that people have free will and freedom of choice to make these daily decisions
founder of psychoanalysis
the first physchodynamic theory
theories that emphasize unconscious processes going on within the mind and They assume the formative role of childhood experiences and early unconscious conflicts
energy constantly striving to satisfy basic drives; pleasure principle; motives to avoid pain and seek pleasure, pleasure system,satisfies basic needs, unconscious
seeks to gratify the Id in realistic ways, reality principle; referee between instincts and demands of society, mediator of Id and Super Ego
voice of conscience that focuses on how we ought to behave; the voice of conscious, represents morals, trying to make choices
Katrina refuses to admit she has an alcohol problem although she is unable to go a single day without drinking.
During lunch at a restaurant, Marco is angry at his older brother, but does not express it and instead is verbally abusive to the server
Cristina often cheats on her boyfriend because she suspects he is already cheating on her.
Carlos failed his history course because he did not study or attend class, but he told his roommates he failed because the teacher didn't like him.
Nancy is angry with her coworker Beth for always arriving late to work after a night of partying, but she is nice and agreeable to Beth and affirms partying as "cool."
After failing to pass his doctoral examinations, Jorge spends days in bed cuddling his childhood toy.
Lucia cannot remember her grandfather's fatal heart attack, although she was present.
Juan's desire for revenge on the drunk driver who killed his son is channeled into a community support group for people who've lost loved ones to drunk driving.
example of a popular test that divides personality into types
Big Five Dimensions of Personality
the extent to which differences in a trait can be attributed to our genetic makeup is important in trying to understand human behavior.
states that we learn behaviors through observation, modeling, and motivation such as positive reinforcement. Some influential psychologists of this theory were N.E. Miller and Albert Bandura. They found that this type of social learning was strengthened if the observer identified with their "model." This meant that children were more likely to repeat behaviors they had seen other children their age do, although they might model adults as well. Learning is also stregthened if someone models a behavior he or she has seen rewarded. This leads to a motivation for the person to model the behavior in order to get a similar reward
social cognitive learning theory
is a subtype of environmental influences that refers to the environmental factors that produce behavioral differences among siblings living in the same household.
non shared environment
refers to the characteristics and aspects of personality that we are born with. For that reason, they are similar to traits in that they are both innate (born with these things) and enduring. Infants who are anxious and nervous tend to be the same way when they are older. One difference though is that temperament more often relates to emotionality...the specific emotional characteristics such as calm, anxious, or nervous
are individual characteristics that influence behavior and actions in a person. Things like individual personality traits, temperament, and genetics are all dispositional factors. They are things that come from within an individual that they do not have much control over.
nfluences that do not occur from within the individual but from elsewhere like the environment and others around you. Examples of situational factors are your environment, work and school, and the people around you
Individualist vs Collectivist Culture; Define the self as autonomous, independent of groups.
Individualist vs Collectivist Culture; Give priority to individual, personal goals.
Individualist vs Collectivist Culture; Value independence, leadership, achievement, self-fulfillment.
Individualist vs Collectivist Culture; Give more weight to an individual's attitudes and preferences than to group norms as explanations of behavior.
Individualist vs Collectivist Culture; Attend to the benefits and costs of relationships; if costs exceed advantages, a person is likely to drop the relationship.
Individualist vs Collectivist ; Define the self as an interdependent part of groups.
Individualist vs Collectivist Culture; Give priority to the needs and goals of the group.
Individualist vs Collectivist Culture; Value group harmony, duty, obligation, security.
Individualist vs Collectivist Culture; Give more weight to group norms than to individual attitudes as explanations of behavior.
Individualist vs Collectivist Culture; Attend to the needs of group members; if a relationship is beneficial to the group but costly to the individual, the individual is likely to stay in the relationship.
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