The Americans: Chapter 15 "Immigration and Urbanization"
Terms in this set (50)
Why did many Americans welcome immigrants?
1. They supplied labour for factories, mines, and railroads
2. They would populate the West
3. Agricultural companies got more customers
4. They had skills that bettered the United States
5. They supplied men for the Military
Why did the "Know-Nothings" oppose immigration?
Immigrants took away American jobs and did not pick up American culture and language
Why did Americans oppose the new immigrants?
1. Job competition
-> they believe Americans should get a job, not the immigrants
2. They're hard to "Americanize"
-> will not learn English or American culture
3. They aren't considered smart
4. They lived in segregated communities
-> ethnic communities
5. The Nordic Supremacy belief
-> light-coloured skin, eye, and haired people are SUPERIOR to dark-skinned/haired/eyed
An immigration station located in the New York harbor
An immigration station located in the San Francisco Bay; where the Japanese and Chinese came to; had harsh questioning and long detention for admission
A metaphor that represents America: a mixture of people of different cultures and races who blended together by abandoning their native languages and customs
Overt favoritism toward native-born Americans; nativism gave rise to anti-immigrant groups and led to a demand for immigration restrictions
Chinese Exclusion Act
An act banned entry to all Chinese except students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and government officials.
Japan's government agreed to limit emigration of unskilled workers to the United States in exchange for the repeal of the San Francisco segregation order.
Growth of cities
The movement in which immigrants are assimilated into the main culture
Provided social support for immigrants
Why did farmers migrate to the cities?
Farm technology decreased the need for labourers
Move to cities in the North to escape racial violence and discrimination
Do African Americans suffer discrimination and segregation in the North?
What causes tension between blacks and whites?
Multi-family urban dwellings that are overcrowded and unsanitary
Who were tenements originally built for?
What were some of the downsides of tenement houses?
1. Fire risk
2. The window was nailed shut
3. It was very dirty
4. There was a high crime-rate
Moved large numbers of people along fixed routes; linked cities to suburbs
What has manure, open gutters, factory smoke, and poor trash collection?
Social Gospel Movement
An early reform program that preached salvation (going to Heaven) through service to the poor
Community centers in slums that help immigrants; run by college-educated women
What did settlement houses do?
1. Provided educational, cultural, and social services
2. Sent visiting nurses to help the sick
3. Helped with person, job, and financial problems
Founded Chicago's Hull House with Elen Gates Starr in 1889
An organized group that controlled the activities of a political party in a city; offered services to voters and businesses in exchange for political or financial support.
How was the machine organized?
Precinct captains, ward bosses, and the city boss
The city boss can also serve as what?
What are the roles of the Political Boss?
1. Controls access to city jobs and business licenses
2. Influences courts and municipal agencies
3. Arranges building projects and community services, such as schools, playgrounds, and parks
Who were first-generation or second-generation immigrants?
Many precinct captains and political bosses
What did machines help immigrants with?
Naturalization, jobs, and housing
What did machines want in return for helping immigrants?
The illegal use of political influence for personal gain
What action of the machines enriched political machines and individual politicians?
Taking kickbacks, or illegal payments, for their services
William M. Tweed (Boss Tweed)
Head of Tammany Hall; led the Tweed Ring
New York City's powerful Democratic political machine; helped immigrants, notably the Irish, rise up in American politics
A group of corrupt politicians that cheated millions of dollars; breaks in 1871
The giving of government jobs to people who had helped a candidate get elected
Government administration jobs
Rutherford B. Hayes
A Republican that was elected president in 1876
Since Hayes could not convince Congress to support reform, what did he do?
1. Named independents to the cabinet
2. Creates a commission to investigate corruption
3. Fires two officials; angers Stalwarts
James A. Garfield
An independent presidential candidate who was the Ohio Congressman; wins election in 1880
Chester A. Arthur
A Stalwart ominated by Republicans for Vice President to balance out Garfield's ties to reformers; becomes President after Garfield's assassination
What job does Garfield give to the reformers?
Patronage jobs, which gets him shot and killed
Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883
A bipartisan civil service commission to make appointments to federal jobs through a merit system based on candidates' performance on an examination.
Although manufacturers tended to _________ tariffs, consumers tended to _________ tariffs
Democratic President elected in 1884 and 1892; wanted a low tariff; passed the Wilson-Gorman Tariff
Republican President elected in 1888; wanted a high tariff; passed the McKinley Tariff of 1890
Republican President elected in 1897; wanted high tariffs; raised tariffs
"I am a Stalwart of the Stalwarts ... Arthur is president now!" -_____________ ___________