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4-H Poultry Showmanship Questions
Terms in this set (49)
What is the function of the vent? Is it common to all poultry?
It is the uro-genital opening of the bird, the external portion of the cloaca. All poultry have one. It is where the egg, uric acid, and feces all exit.
In order for a female to lay eggs, does she need the presence of a male?
No, only for fertile eggs to be produced.
In what part of the hens reproductive tract is the shell produced?
Uterus or shell gland.
What are the following? Pullet, Hen, Cockerel, Rooster, Capon?
Pullet is young female, hen is a female that has laid eggs for about 6 months, cockerel is a young male, rooster is mature male, and capon is castrated male chicken.
What is the importance of calcium in the diets of laying hens?
Needed for the calcium of the egg shell.
What precautions must be taken when you introduce a new bird into your home flock?
First check for disease, next quarantine for three weeks, and check for any symptoms.
What are the main differences between the plumage of most adult male and female chickens?
Male: long, sharp hackle feathers, saddle feathers, and sickle feathers on tail. Female: short, blunt hackle feathers, no saddle feathers or sickle feathers on tail.
Other than feathers, what other anatomical features are unique to the male chicken?
Larger comb and wattles, coloring, spurs.
What are the major external parasites of poultry? How do you perform a parasite check on chickens and poultry?
Lice and mites, check vent, under wings, on skin under feathers by preen gland, general body area.
If you found external parasites, how should you treat them?
Use Sevin powder or liquid to spray or dust the birds and dust nest boxes.
What are two other names for the breast bone of a chicken?
Sternum or keel
How many eggs can a hen potentially lay in one year?
365 or one a day.
What nutrients do chickens and other poultry require each day?
Protein, carbohydrates, fat, minerals, vitamins, water, oxygen
What are the most common feed ingredients used in poultry diets in the United states?
Corn and soybean meal
It has been said that eggs are an almost perfect food, however they are missing one vitamin, what is it?
What does depth of body indicate?
size of abdomen and ability to hold a forming egg
What does width of body indicate?
Size of body across pelvic bones, room for an egg
Why do we measure flexibility of the pubic bones?
To see if they will open enough for an egg to pass through.
Why does the judge ask to see the feet and legs of birds?
To check for deformities, disease, and parasites
What does "molt" mean relative to chickens?
Lose feathers, reproduction stops, renews the bird for another reproduction cycle
Why should birds be removed from and replaced into cages head first?
Prevent possible wing damage, to maintain control
What is the function of the uropygial (preen) gland?
Produces oily substance the bird wipes onto its feathers with its beak, for preening. In ducks and waterfowl it helps waterproof their feathers.
Which of the nutrients, other than oxygen, should poultry have free access to at all times?
Do chickens ever have teeth?
Yes, egg tooth at hatch to help break through the shell
What does "dual purpose" mean relative to chickens?
Can be used for both meat and egg production, like Rhode Island Reds, New Hampshires, White and Barred Plymouth Rocks, etc.
What does "bleaching" mean relative to chickens?
It refers to the order of loss of skin color in laying hens, particularly in Leghorn type birds, where the yellow pigment, xanthophyll, of the skin fades to white as the pigment is used to color the yolk. Order of bleaching: Vent, eyering and earlobes, beak, bottom of feet, front of shanks, back of shanks, tops of toes, hock joints, when birds stop laying eggs they replace pigment in reverse order.
Where does the yellow color of the skin, beak and shanks of chickens come from?
Xanthophyll from the corn and grass they eat.
What color eggs do Rhode Island Reds, New Hampshires and Sex Linked chickens lay?
What breed(s) of chicken lay(s) blue-green eggs?
Araucana, Ameraucana, and Cream Legbar
What needs to be supplied in an artificial incubator to hatch eggs?
Heat, humidity, turning
How long is the incubation period for chickens, turkeys, ducks and geese?
21, 28, 28, 30-32, for muscovy it is 33-35 days.
At what temperature should most chicken eggs be incubated?
100 deg. F
What is the purpose of turning eggs in an incubator?
Keep embryo from sticking to membranes and causing malformations of embryo
Why should incubators be "fumigated" or "disinfected" prior to use?
To remove any bacteria, virus, or mold organisms that might infect the eggs being hatched
How many eyelids does a chicken have? Why?
Three, upper, lower and nictating membrane which moves horizontally from the front of the eye to the rear and is clear. It clears and lubricates the surface of the eye.
How many feather tracts do chickens have?
10- head, neck, shoulder, wings, breast, back, abdomen, rump, thighs, and legs
How many primary and secondary flight feathers do chickens have?
10 primary, 14-18 secondary
What and where are the covert feathers?
Small feathers on the wing, fill in spaces.
What is the function of the comb and wattles on chickens?
Sex differentiation, breed identification, and thermoregulation
Where is the axial feather found and how many do chickens have?
On wings between primary and secondary flight feathers. one on each wing.
For what disease must all birds going to shows of our states be tested for?
How is Salmonella Pullorum spread or transmitted?
Through the egg, either by organisms from the ovary, or from shell contamination from contact with manure in nest box.
What are basic signs of good health in chickens?
Alert, active, clear eyes, good manure consistency, free from external parasites.
How often should poultry flocks that are allowed access to outside for grazing be de-wormed?
As often as needed, but at least twice a year, Spring and Fall.
For what disease of poultry should small flock owners be particularly aware of that can cause high mortality and be of great concern to commercial poultry growers?
If you saw a lot of manure staining on the feathers just below the vent, what health related problem of your bird should you suspect?
Why is diarrhea of concern and how can it be treated?
Diarrhea can lead to de-hydration and possible death. One needs to re-hydrate the bird by providing electrolytes and water and then determine why the bird had diarrhea in the first place and treat that. A high load of worms, coccidiosis or bacterial infection of the gut can often lead to diarrhea.
Sometimes in breeding flocks feather loss is noticed on the lower back and the back of the head of the females. What is the cause of this?
When breeding, the males stand on the back of the females, and hold onto the feathers on the back of the head with their beak, causing loss of feather in those areas.
Many starter feeds for chicken
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