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111 terms

my ap ch6

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Which of the following is a function of the skeletal system?
*Protection of Internal organs
*Calcium homeostasis
*Body support
*Blood cell production
Which of the following are not components of the skeletal system?
Tendons.
Which of the following bones is classified as "irregular" in shape?
Vertebra
The tip of a long bone is called the?
Epiphysis
The carpal bones are examples of ______ bones.
Short
A rib is an example of a ______ bone.
Flat
Bones that develop within tendons are called _____ bones.
Sesamoid
Small, oddly shaped bones that fill gaps between bones of the skull are called _____ bones.
Sutural
________ bones develop inside tendons, commonly near the knees, hands, and feet.
Sesamoid
The humerus is an example of a(n) ________ bone.
Long
The large proximal projection on the femur is termed the?
Trochanter
A hole through a bone is termed a?
Foramen
The smooth, rounded articular process of a bone is termed a?
Condyle
A shallow depression on a bone is termed a?
Fossa
The region of a long bone between the end and the shaft is known as the ________.
Metaphysis
The shaft of long bones is called the ________.
***Diaphysis
The narrow region between the head and shaft of a long bone is called the ________.
***Metaphysis
A ________ is a smooth, grooved bone process shaped like a pulley.
***Trochlea
A small rough bump on bone where a tendon attaches is called a ________.
***Tuberosity
A chamber within a bone normally filled with air is a ________.
***Sinus
The expanded articular end of an epiphysis that is separated from the shaft by a narrower neck is termed a(n) ________.
***Head
A(n) ________ is a rounded passageway for passage of blood vessels and/or nerves.
***Foramen
The adult skeleton contains ________ major bones.
***206
________ prevents damaging bone-to-bone contact within movable joints.
***Articular cartilage
Which of the following labels best matches osteocyte?
Mature bone cell
Bone is composed of ________ percent cells.
2
Cells that secrete the organic components of the bone matrix are called?
Osteoblasts
________ are squamous stem cells that develop into osteoblasts.
Osteoprogenitor cells
Through the action of osteoclasts?
Bony matrix is dissolved
The space occupied by an osteocyte is called a?
Lacuna
Which of the following chemicals is not present in bone?
Chondroitin Sulfate
________ account(s) for almost two-thirds of the weight of bone.
Calcium phosphate
________ cells are located in the inner cellular layer of the periosteum.
Osteoprogenitor
The ________ interactions allow bone to be strong, somewhat flexible, and highly resistant to shattering.
Protein-crystal
The most abundant cell type in bone is?
Osteocytes
The lacunae of osseous tissue contain?
Osteocytes
How would removing hydroxyapatite from bone matrix affect the physical properties of a bone?
The bone would be more flexible.
The narrow passageways that contain cytoplasmic extensions of osteocytes are called?
Canaliculi
In bone, the calcium phosphate forms crystals of ________.
***Hydroxyapatite
Stem cells that can differentiate into osteoblasts are called ________ cells.
***Osteoprogenitor
Cells that free calcium from bone to maintain blood calcium levels are called ________.
***Osteoclasts
Cells that are found in small depressions on the endosteal surfaces are the ________.
***Osteoclasts
Cells that secrete collagen fibers are called ________.
***Osteoblasts
The organic component of the matrix in developing or repairing bone is called ________.
***Osteoid
The central canal of an osteon contains?
Blood vessels
The interconnecting tiny arches of bone tissue found in spongy bone are called?
Trabeculae
The type of bone that is adapted to withstand stresses that arrive from many directions is ________ bone.
Spongy
The structural units of mature compact bone are called?
Osteons
Fat is stored within the?
Medullary cavity
Which of the following is a characteristic of bone?
The bone matrix is very dense and contains deposits of calcium salts.
In relationship to the diaphysis of a long bone, the osteons are?
Parallel
The femur can withstand ________ times the body weight without breaking.
10 to 15
________ marrow is found between the trabeculae of spongy bone.
Red
The lining of the medullary cavity is called the?
Endosteum
________ bone reduces the weight of the skeleton and reduces the load on muscles.
Spongy
The layers of bone tissue immediately deep to the periosteum are?
Circumferential lamellae.
Which statement is true regarding calcium in bone matrix?
Calcium is found in crystals called hydroxyapatite.
The trabeculae of spongy bone:
Are organized along stress lines
Blood is distributed from the surface of a bone to deeper central canals through channels known as ________.
***Perforating Canals
________ fibers are stronger than steel when stretched.
***Collagen
The matrix in spongy bone forms struts and arches called ________.
***Trabeculae
The superficial membrane of a bone is called the ________.
***Periosteum
The articular cartilage of a typical long bone is composed of what type of cartilage?
Hyaline cartilage
The deposition of calcium salts in bone tissues is referred to as?
Ossification
Which of the following is formed by intramembranous ossification?
The roof of the skull and the clavicle
Endochondral ossification begins with the formation of a(n)?
Cartilage model
The following are important steps in the process of endochondral ossification.
3.Chondrocytes enlarge tand the surrounding matrix begins to calcify.
1. Enlarged chondrocyes die
4. Blood vessels invade the perichondrium
5. Perichondrial cells become osteoblasts and produce a thin shell of bone
2. Osteoblasts replace calcified cartilage with spongy bone
Secondary ossification centers occur?
In the epiphyses.
Intramembranous ossification begins with differentiation of ________ cells.
Mesenchymal
Which of the following statements about Marfan's syndrome is false?
Results in short, stubby fingers
Bone growth in length occurs by mitosis of?
Cartilage cells in the epiphyseal side of the metaphysis.
Intramembranous ossification?
Produces flat bones as in the bones of the roof of the skull
Primary ossification centers develop in long bones in the?
Diaphysis.
Bone tissue formation begins when osteoblasts secrete?
Collagen fibers.
Suppose that epiphyseal lines appear in a 10-year-old's long bones. Which of the following statements is therefore true?
The epiphyseal plates have ossified and further growth in length is not possible.
During appositional growth:
Bones grow wider
When the epiphyseal plate is replaced by bone:
Long bones have reached their adult length
When cartilage is produced at the epiphyseal side of the metaphysis at the same rate as bone is deposited on the opposite side, bones:
Grow longer
Accelerated closure of the epiphyseal plates could be caused by?
Elevated levels of estrogen
When production of sex hormones increases at puberty, epiphyseal plates:
Become narrower
The following are major steps in the process of intramembranous ossification:
4. Mesenchymal cells aggregate into a connective tissue layer
2. Osteoblasts differentiate within mesenchymal connective tissue
1. Clusters of osteoblasts secrete a matrix that becomes mineralized
3. Trabeculae of bone grow out from the ossification centers
During the process of ________, an existing tissue is replaced by bone.
***Ossification
The process of depositing calcium into a tissue is called ________.
***Calcification
What type of tissue is replaced in the embryo during endochondral ossification?
***Hyaline cartilage
The most abundant mineral in the human body is?
Calcium
Elevated levels of calcium ion in the blood stimulate the secretion of the hormone?
Calcitonin
The hormone calcitonin functions to?
Decrease the level of calcium ion in the blood
Parathyroid hormone functions in all of the following ways, except that it?
Inhibits calcitonin secretion.
A child with rickets often has?
Bowed legs
Hundreds of years ago explorers often died of scurvy. How can this bone-related disease be prevented?
Supplement the diet with fresh fruit rich in Vitamin C
How is vitamin D (vitamin D3) related to calcium homeostasis in bone?
Vitamin D is involved in calcium absorption by the digestive tract so calcium is available for ossification and remodeling.
The disease osteomalacia causes calcium loss from the skeleton, which would result in bones that are?
Weaker and more flexible.
A fracture at the ankle involving both lower leg bones is often called a ________ fracture.
Pott's
While on a school skiing trip in Colorado, Heidi falls and breaks her tibia and fibula in a Pott fracture. What would you expect as a prominent part of her clinical assessment several hours after the fall?
Hematoma
Put the following steps of bone repair in correct sequence:
1. Cartilage in the external callus is replaced by bone.
2. A hematoma occurs.
3. An internal callus forms at the site of injury.
4. Osteoclasts remodel the bone at the site of repair.
2,3,1,4
Damage to a bone because of extreme load, sudden impact, or stresses applied from an unusual direction is called a(n) ________.
***Fracture
A(n) ________ or closed fracture does not break the skin.
***Simple
An open or ________ fracture projects through the skin.
***Compound
A(n) ________ fracture shatters the bone.
***Comminuted
A fracture of the bone across its long axis is called a(n) ________ fracture.
***Transverse
In a(n) ________ fracture one side of the shaft is split and the other side is bent.
***Greenstick
A(n) ________ fracture is produced by twisting stresses applied to the bone.
***Spiral
A transverse fracture of the wrist that may be comminuted is called a(n) ________ fracture.
***Colles
The fracture of vertebrae subjected to extreme vertical stress is called a(n) ________ fracture.
***Compression
A boot-top fracture that involves both lower leg bones is called a(n) ________ fracture.
***Pott
A(n) ________ fracture produces shattered bone fragments.
***Comminuted
Where in the body does the production of precursors for the synthesis of calcitriol occur?
Skin
A lack of exercise could?
Result in porous and weak bones
When stress is applied to a bone,
The minerals in the bone produce a weak electrical field that attracts osteoblasts.
Excessive growth hormone prior to puberty could result in?
Giantism
Factors that are necessary for proper bone formation include all of the following, except?
Vitamin E