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29 terms

skin

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verrucae
Warts. Soft, tan colored, cauliflower-like lesions. Epidermal hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, koliocytosis.
Nevocellular nevus
Common mole. Benign
Urticaria
Hives. Intensely pruritic wheals that form after mast cell degranulation . Dilated superficial lymphatic channels
Ephelis
Freckle. Normal number of melanocytes but increase melanin pigment
Atopic dermatitis (eczema)
Pruritic eruption, commonly on skin flexures. Often associated with ASTHMA and allergic rhinitis
Psoriasis
Papules and plaques with SILVERY SCALING especially on knees and elbows. Acanthosis with parakeratotic scaling (nuclei still in stratum corneum). Increased stratum spinosum and decreased granulosum. Auspitz sing (bleeding spots when scales are scraped off. Can be associted with nail pitting and psoriatic arthritis
Seborrheic keratosis
Flat, greasy, pigmented squamous epithelial proliferation with keratin-filled cysts (pseudo horns). Looks pasted on. Lesions occur on head, trunk and extremities . Common benign neoplasm of older people.
Albinism
Normal melanocyte number with decreased melanin production due to decreased activity of tyrosinase. Can also be caused by failure of neural crest cell migration during development
Vitiligo
Irregular areas of complete depigmentation. Caused by a decrease in melanocytes
Melasma
Hyperpigmentation associated with pregnancy ("mask of pregnancy") or OCP use
Impetigo
Very superficial skin infection. Usually from S. Aureus or S. Pyogenes. Highly contagious and honey colored crusting
Cellulitis
Acute, painful spreading of infection of dermis and subcutaneous tissues. Usually from S. pyogenes or S. Aureus
Necrotizing fasciitis
Deeper tissue injury, usually from anaerobic bacteria and S. Pyogenes. Results in crepitus from methane and CO2 production. Flesh eating bacteria
Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS)
Exotoxin destroys keratinocyte attachments in the stratum granulosum only. Chracterized by fever and generalized erythematous rash with sloughing of the upper layers of the epidermis. Seen in newborns and children
Hairy Leukoplakia
White painless plaques on the tongue that cannot be scraped off. EBV mediated. Occurs in HIV positive patients
Pemphigus vulgaris
Potentially fatal autoimmune skin disorder with IgG antibody against desmosomes (anti-epithelial cell antibody); immunofluoresecence reveals antibodies around cells of epidermis in a reticular or netlike pattern.
Acantholysis
intraepidermal bullae involving the skin and oral mucosa
Bullous pemphigoid
Autoimmune disorder with IgG antibody against hemidesmosomes. Shows linear immunofluorescence. Eosinophils within blisters. Affects skin but spares oral mucosa
Dermatitis herpetiformis
Pruritic papules and vesicles. Deposits of IgA at the tips of dermal papillae. Associated with celiac disease
Erythema multiforme
Associated with infections (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, HSV) drugs (sulfa drugs, Beta lactams, phenytoin) cancers, and autoimmune disease. Presents with multiple types of lesions (target)
Stevens-Johnson syndrome
Characterized by fever, bulla formation and necrosis, sloughing of skin, and a high mortality rate. Usually associated with adverse drug reaction.
Lichen Planus
Pruritic, Purple, Polygonal Papules. Sawtooth infiltrate of lymphocytes at dermal-epidermal junction. associated with HEPATITIS C
Actinic keratosis
Premalignant lesions caused by sun exposure. Small, rough, erythematous or brownish papules. Cutaneous horn. Risk of carcinoma is proportional to epithelial dysplasia
Acanthosis nigricans
Hyperplasia of the stratum spinosum. Associated with hyperinsulinemia and visceral malignancy
Erythema nodosum
Inflammatory lesions of subcutaneous fat, usually on anterior shins. Associated with coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, TB, leprosy, streptococcal infections, sarcoidosis
Pityriasis rosea
Herald path followed days later by Christmas tree distribution. Multiple papular eruptions; remits spontaneously
Strawberry hemangioma
First few weeks of life (1/200) births; grows rapidly and regresses spontaneously at 5-8 years of age
Cherry hemangioma
Appears in 30-40s does not regress
Actinic chelitis
can result in SCC due to sunexposure; ulcerated lesion that may appear on the vermillion of the lip