Anatomy Vocabulary--Nervous System

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Axon
A threadlike extension of a neuron that carries nerve impulses away from the cell body.
Central Nervous System
A subdivision of the human nervous system comprising the brain and spinal cord. Transmits & receives messages to & from the PNS
Dendrite
Branchlike parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information.
Effector
An organ (a gland or muscle) that becomes active in response to nerve impulses.
Myelin
A layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next.
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Network of nerves and supporting cells that carries signals into and out of the central nervous system
Sensory Receptor
Specialized cell that transmits signals to sensory neurons
Synapse
A junction where information is transmitted from one neuron to the next.
Autonomic Nervous System
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.
Meninges
three layers of connective tissue in which the brain and spinal cord are wrapped
Neurolemma
the outermost nucleated cytoplasmic layer of Schwann cells that surrounds the axon of the neuron. It forms the outermost layer of the nerve fiber in the peripheral nervous system.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
Plexus
A network of interlacing nerve fibers in the peripheral nervous system
Somatic Nervous System
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles
Sympathetic Nervous System
The division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations. (Fight or flight)
Action Potential
A neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. The action potential is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon's membrane.
Convergence
Nerve impulses arriving at the same neuron
Divergence
moving or spreading apart or in different directions from a common point (impulses move away from each other)
Facilitation
the ability of one neuron to make it easier for another neuron to stimulate a target cell is.....
Ganglion
collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system
Neurotransmitter
Chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
Nissl Body Reflex
The functions of Nissl bodies is thought to be the same as that of the rest of the ER and the golgi apparatus: the manufacture and release of proteins