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1) To penetrate food items with selected flavours 2) To tenderize the muscle fibers of certain meats 3) To assist in food preservation

What are the three primary functions of marinades and brines?

Quick Marinades

These kinds of marinades are suitable for small cuts of meat to be used quickly (grilled red meats) and for meats to be used as ancillary ingredients for cold preparations of galantines, terrines, pates etc.

Quick marinade of Meats for grilling

What type marination process of meat product would this describe?: sprinkle the surface of the meat with finely chopped shallot, parsley stalks, thyme, bay leaf, salt & pepper and then sprinkle with oil and lemon juice

Quick marinade for Ancillary meats

What type marination process of meat product would include sprinkling the meat with salt & pepper, then sprinkling with a marinade of three parts white wine, three parts brandy and one part oil? veal, game, ham or pork fat may be used as well.

Add it to the forcemeat under preparation

What should be done with the leftover marinade from ancillary meats?

Turn them frequently

In the quick marinade process what should be done to ensure even penetration?

Raw marinade for butcher's meats and Venison

The liquid volume of this marinade is white wine, vinegar and oil flavored with carrot, onion, shallot, celery, garlic, parsley stalks, thyme, bayleaf, peppercorn and cloves.

Cooked Marinade for Butcher's meats and Venison

For this marinade carrots, onions, shallots are sauteed in oil with celery, garlic, parsley stalks, thyume, bayleaf, peppercorns and cloves. White wine and vinegar are added and simmered gently for 30 minutes, then cooled for use.

Raw or cooked marinade for Large Game

This marinade uses the same flavoring ingredients as for butcher's meats and venison with the addition of rosemary. The liquid omits the white wine but follows the same process whether raw or cooked.

Cooked Marinade for Mutton prepared en Chevreuil

The flavoring & liquid ingredients for this are the same as for the cooked Marinade for butcher's meats & venison with the addition of 10 juniper berries and basil and rosemary.

Cooked Marinade for mutton prepared en chamois

This marinade is the same as the one for raw marinade for butchers meats but with the addition of juniper berries, basil, rosemary and the substitution of red wine for white wine.

To speed up the penetration of the item under preparation

What is the purpose of using a cooked marinade?

1) nature and size of the piece of meat 2) the temp of the surrounding area 3) atmospheric variations

What are the three factors that effect how long a piece of meat should be left in the marinade?

For very tough joints of furred game (wild boar, stag, reindeer)

When is it appropriate to use pure vinegar in a meat marinade?

The corrosive action of the vinegar will destroy the flavor

Why should you never use pure vinegar on tender cuts of meat?

1) add boric acid 2) boil it every day in hot weather and every 4-5 days in cool 3) replenish after each boiling with appropriate wine and vinegar

What three steps should be taken to successfully keep marinade for a lengthy period?

Dry Salt Curing

This process involves a piercing a joint of meat through the center with a large needle, then rubbed with a mixture of salt petre and coarse salt to cover, then weighted down under pressure with thyme and bayleaf.

Pickling brine for tongues

This brine is water, coarse salt, saltpetre, brown sugar, peppercorns, juniper berries, thyme and bayleaf boiled and cooled completely. It's then poured over tongues that have been pierced with a needle and rubbed well with salt and saltpetre.

8 days in winter and 6 days in summer

How long does escoffier advise it takes to pickle a medium sized tongue?

General Purpose pickling brine

This brine is water, salt, saltpetre and brown sugar boiled together and cooled for use.

A potato

Escoffier advises using this to check the salinity of your brine. If it floats, the brine needs more water. If it sinks immediately the brine must be reduced.

Wooden slats

What does escoffier recommend you use in the bottom of your brining tank?

Even circulation of the brine

What is the purpose of using metal slats in the bottom of your brining tank?

a brine syringe

What should you use to ensure full penetration of brine into large joints of meat?

8 days

How long should you allow for pickling all sizes of joints of meat?

9-10 lbs

What size of meat join would necessitate injection of brine?

a cutlet bat or a rolling pin

What should be used to beat ox tongues to prepare them for brining?

weighted down to prevent floating?

Once your ox tongues are in their brine, what should you do to ensure they remain submerged?

The stock used

Where do savoury jellies obtain their nutritive value, savour, flavor and quality?

soft consistency

What is the advantage of using a savoury jelly that is made without supplemental setting ingredients?

6 leaves per 1 litre

What is the maximum amount of gelatine that should be added to a stock to be used for aspic?

artificial colouring

What does Escoffier advise you should never add to ordinary aspic Jelly?

Stock for ordinary aspic jelly

This consists of lightly browned knuckle and shin of veal, small chopped veal bones, round piece of shank of beef combined with blanched & bopned calf's feet, fresh pork rind, carrot, onion, leek, celery, bouquet garni, and water cooked in the same way as brown stock.

6 hours

How long should the stock for ordinary aspic jelly cook?

Stock for white aspic Jelly

This is made with the same amount of ingredients and liquid as for stock ofor ordinary aspic jelly but uses very white stock instead of water and the same cooking time as for white stock.

Stock for chicken aspic jelly

This contains knuckle of veal, shank of beef, small broken veal bones, chicken carcasses and giblets, scalded chicken legs, boned blanched calf's feet, carrot, onion, leek celery, bouquet garni and lightly flavoured white stock. The same process is followed as for white chicken stock.

4 hours

How long does escoffier advise stock for chicken aspic jelly should be cooked?

Stock for game aspic jelly

This contains knuckle of veal, shank of beef, broken small veal bones, trimmings and carcasses of game colored in the oven and cooked with boned & blanched calf's feet with carrot, onion, leek, celery, bouquet garni with added thyme, junmiper berries and water. It is cooked in the same way as Game stock.

4 hours

How long should you cook stock for game aspic jelly?

Stock for ordinary fish aspic jelly

This contains second quality fish, bones and trimmings of sole, sliced onions, parsley stalks, mushroom trimmings and lightly flavoured fish stock. Proceed in the same way as for fish stock.

Stock for Red Wine Fish Aspic jelly

This stock is usually the one which has been used in the cooking of fish such as carp or trout. The liquid is always half good red burgundy and half gelatinous fish stock.

The day before use

When is the ideal time to make an aspic stock?

So that all cooled fat can be easily removed

Why should aspic stock be allowed to completely cooled before used in its desired application?

1) determine the amount of gelatine required to set the stock 2) skim and decant the stock 3) make a clarification of minced beef, egg whites, chervil & tarragon 4) add the cold or lukewarm stock to the clarification, bring gradually to a boil until a raft forms 5) simmer gently for 15 minutes and strain for use

What are the 5 steps for clarifying stock for ordinary aspic jellies?

After it is cold

If wine is to be added to aspic jelly when should this be done?

The clarification process would destroy its flavor

Why should wine not be added to aspic jelly while it is being clarified?

Chicken Aspic jelly

The same process as for ordinary aspic is used but with the substitution of equal weight chopped chicken necks for half the weight of ground beef.

Game Aspic Jelly

This is the same preparation as for ordinary aspic jelly but half the ground beef is replaced with ground game.

Use the flesh of the game specified in the clarification

How do you modfy game aspic jelly if it is to be used with a specific game meat?

White fish aspic jelly

This aspic uses 3 egg whites per 5 litres of fish stock, chopped fillet of whiting and fresh caviare (if available). The same process is used as for fish consomme.

Champagne or good quality white burgundy

What beverages may be added to white fish aspic jelly to enrich the flavor?

crayfish that have been sauteed and cooked as for bisque

What is a suggested flavor additive to taylor your fish aspic jelly for special applications?

Red wine fish aspic jelly

This aspic uses 4 egg whites per 5 litres of fish stock and is carried out in the same way as for white fish aspic jelly with the substitution of artificial or red vegetable colouring. No more than a light delicate pink color should be obtained.

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