Human Cognitive Processing

Exam 2
The ability to pay attention to, or carry out, two or more different tasks simultaneously is known as
divided attention
In Schneider and Shiffrin's experiment, in which participants were asked to indicate whether a target stimulus was present in a series of rapidly presented "frames," divided attention was easier
in the consistent-mapping condition
The Stroop effect demonstrates
how automatic processing can interfere with intended processing
With the STroop effect, you would expect to find longest response times when
the color and the name differed
Controlled processing involves
close attention
Research on the use of cell phones while driving indicates that
the main effect of cell phone use on driving safety can be attributed to the fact that attention is used up by the cognitive task of talking on the phone
Strayer and Johnston's experiment involving simulated driving and the use of "hands-free" vs. "handheld" cell phones found that
driving performance was impaired less with the hands-free phones than with the handheld phones
In Simons and Chabris' "change blindness" experiment, participants watch a film of people playing basketball. Many participants failed to report that a woman carrying an umbrella walked through because
participants were counting the number of ball passes
Automatic attraction of attention by a sudden visual or auditory stimulus is called
exogenous attention
A bottom-up process is involved in fixating on an area of a scene that
has high stimulus salience
Scene schema is
knowledge about what is contained in a typical scene
Amy has no idea what she just read in her text because she was thinking about how hungry she is and what she is going to have for dinner. This is a real-world example of
innatentional blindness
Location-based attention is when
people move their attention from one place to another
According to Treisman's feature integration theory, the first stage of perception is called the ______ stage.
In Klin and coworkers' research that investigated autistic reactions to the film Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, autistic people primarily attended to ____ in the scene.
According to your text, students often overlook functions of memory they take for granted such as
labeling familiar objects
The three structural components of the modal model of memory are
sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory
Information remains in sensory memory for
seconds or a fraction of a second
When light from a flashlight is moved quickly back and forth on a wall in a darkened room, it can appear to observers that there is a trail of light moving across the wall, even though physically the light is only in one place at any given time. This experience is an effect of memory that occurs because of
persistence of vision
Compared to the whole-report technique, the partial-report procedure involves
a smaller response set
Brief sensory memory for sound is known as
echoic memory
Sensory memory is believed by many cognitive psychologists to be responsible for all of the following EXCEPT
deciding which incoming sensory information will be the focus of attention