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40 terms

Test 1 Review (quiz questions)

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A food label ingredient list reads in the following order: Wheat flour, vegetable shortening, sugar, salt, and cornstarch. What item would be found in the smallest amount in the food?
cornstarch
Greg is trying to decide which brand of cereal to buy, but he is a somewhat confused by the health claims. Which of the following represents the highest level of significant scientific agreement?
"This product contains whole grains, which have been proven to reduce the risk of heart disease and certain cancers"
A food scientist is developing a new and improved cereal bar. She consults with you to ask in what order the ingredients should be listed on the food label. The ingredients are: Sugar: 30 g, Puffed wheat: 28 g, Dry milk powder: 5 g, Red food coloring: 35 mg, Salt: 2 g. What is the appropriate order in which to list these ingredients on the food label?
Sugar, puffed wheat, dry milk powder, salt, red food coloring
Which of the following is a feature of the Daily Values found on food labels?
They assist people in determining whether a food contains a little or a lot of a nutrient
Which of the following is a characteristic of structure-function claims on food labels?
They can be made without any FDA approval
A food label that advertises the product as a "rich source of fiber" is an example of a
nutrient claim.
Which of the following ingredients on a food label is most likely a source of trans fats?
Partially hydrogenated oils
According to nutrition labeling laws, the amounts of what two vitamins must be listed on the package label as a percent Daily Value?
Vitamins A and C
Which of the following is NOT a feature of serving size information on food labels?
Small bags of individually wrapped food items must contain only one serving
On a food label, the "% Daily Value" table compares key nutrients per serving for a person consuming how many kcalories daily?
2000
When blood glucose concentration falls, what pancreatic hormone is secreted to stimulate release of stored glucose?
glucagon
A person eating lots of white bread, white rice, and ready-to-eat cereals would have a diet with a glycemic index that is
high
What term describes how quickly glucose is absorbed from a food after ingestion, how high blood glucose rises as a result, and how quickly blood glucose returns to normal?
glycemic response
Among the following population groups, which shows the highest prevalence of lactose intolerance?
Native Americans
What is the primary function of insulin?
lowers blood glucose levels
In what organ is most of the body's glycogen found?
muscles
Which of the following is a characteristic of dietary fibers?
They are classified according to solubility in water
Which of the following is NOT a source of dietary carbohydrates?
fish
What is the composition of lactose?
one glucose unit and one galactose unit
Common table sugar is typically extracted from sugarcane and
sugar beets
Which of the following is a feature of essential fatty acid deficiency?
It is very rare
What is a ribosome?
A structure upon which proteins are assembled
Which of the following foods contains cholesterol?
Roasted turkey
Which of the following is NOT contained in an amino acid?
An aldehyde group

*they contain NH2 group, COOH group, and R group
Lipids differ in their degree of saturation or unsaturation due to their number of
double bonds.
Your roommate Jeff wishes to switch from using corn oil to using one that is a good source of omega-3 fats. Which of the following should be recommended?
canola oil
In comparison to a low-density lipoprotein, a high-density lipoprotein contains
less lipid
What term signifies when a cell makes a protein under the directions of a gene?
gene expression
Which of the following sources of lipids should be substituted for saturated fats to help lower blood cholesterol levels?
canola oil
How is soluble fiber in the diet thought to help lower blood cholesterol level?
It enhances excretion of bile leading to increased cholesterol turnover
What is the process by which heat or acidity disrupts the normal shape of a protein chain?
denaturation
Tissue swelling that results from water accumulating between cells is known as
edema
A common genetic variation which causes a change in the amino acid sequence in the structure of hemoglobin leads to the disease
sickle-cell anemia.
When nitrogen taken into the body exceeds nitrogen losses, we say the person is in
positive nitrogen balance
What is the relationship between body proteins and water?
proteins attract water
In comparison to the composition of carbohydrates and fats, which element found in proteins makes them unique?
nitrogen
Which of the following is a feature of phospholipids?
soluble in both fat and water
The application of heat or acid to a protein that causes its shape to change is known as
denaturation
Characteristics of hydrogenated oils include all of the following EXCEPT
products containing them become rancid sooner, contributing to a shorter shelf life.
Bile is known to assist in the absorption of
fat only