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A food label ingredient list reads in the following order: Wheat flour, vegetable shortening, sugar, salt, and cornstarch. What item would be found in the smallest amount in the food?


Greg is trying to decide which brand of cereal to buy, but he is a somewhat confused by the health claims. Which of the following represents the highest level of significant scientific agreement?

"This product contains whole grains, which have been proven to reduce the risk of heart disease and certain cancers"

A food scientist is developing a new and improved cereal bar. She consults with you to ask in what order the ingredients should be listed on the food label. The ingredients are: Sugar: 30 g, Puffed wheat: 28 g, Dry milk powder: 5 g, Red food coloring: 35 mg, Salt: 2 g. What is the appropriate order in which to list these ingredients on the food label?

Sugar, puffed wheat, dry milk powder, salt, red food coloring

Which of the following is a feature of the Daily Values found on food labels?

They assist people in determining whether a food contains a little or a lot of a nutrient

Which of the following is a characteristic of structure-function claims on food labels?

They can be made without any FDA approval

A food label that advertises the product as a "rich source of fiber" is an example of a

nutrient claim.

Which of the following ingredients on a food label is most likely a source of trans fats?

Partially hydrogenated oils

According to nutrition labeling laws, the amounts of what two vitamins must be listed on the package label as a percent Daily Value?

Vitamins A and C

Which of the following is NOT a feature of serving size information on food labels?

Small bags of individually wrapped food items must contain only one serving

On a food label, the "% Daily Value" table compares key nutrients per serving for a person consuming how many kcalories daily?


When blood glucose concentration falls, what pancreatic hormone is secreted to stimulate release of stored glucose?


A person eating lots of white bread, white rice, and ready-to-eat cereals would have a diet with a glycemic index that is


What term describes how quickly glucose is absorbed from a food after ingestion, how high blood glucose rises as a result, and how quickly blood glucose returns to normal?

glycemic response

Among the following population groups, which shows the highest prevalence of lactose intolerance?

Native Americans

What is the primary function of insulin?

lowers blood glucose levels

In what organ is most of the body's glycogen found?


Which of the following is a characteristic of dietary fibers?

They are classified according to solubility in water

Which of the following is NOT a source of dietary carbohydrates?


What is the composition of lactose?

one glucose unit and one galactose unit

Common table sugar is typically extracted from sugarcane and

sugar beets

Which of the following is a feature of essential fatty acid deficiency?

It is very rare

What is a ribosome?

A structure upon which proteins are assembled

Which of the following foods contains cholesterol?

Roasted turkey

Which of the following is NOT contained in an amino acid?

An aldehyde group

*they contain NH2 group, COOH group, and R group

Lipids differ in their degree of saturation or unsaturation due to their number of

double bonds.

Your roommate Jeff wishes to switch from using corn oil to using one that is a good source of omega-3 fats. Which of the following should be recommended?

canola oil

In comparison to a low-density lipoprotein, a high-density lipoprotein contains

less lipid

What term signifies when a cell makes a protein under the directions of a gene?

gene expression

Which of the following sources of lipids should be substituted for saturated fats to help lower blood cholesterol levels?

canola oil

How is soluble fiber in the diet thought to help lower blood cholesterol level?

It enhances excretion of bile leading to increased cholesterol turnover

What is the process by which heat or acidity disrupts the normal shape of a protein chain?


Tissue swelling that results from water accumulating between cells is known as


A common genetic variation which causes a change in the amino acid sequence in the structure of hemoglobin leads to the disease

sickle-cell anemia.

When nitrogen taken into the body exceeds nitrogen losses, we say the person is in

positive nitrogen balance

What is the relationship between body proteins and water?

proteins attract water

In comparison to the composition of carbohydrates and fats, which element found in proteins makes them unique?


Which of the following is a feature of phospholipids?

soluble in both fat and water

The application of heat or acid to a protein that causes its shape to change is known as


Characteristics of hydrogenated oils include all of the following EXCEPT

products containing them become rancid sooner, contributing to a shorter shelf life.

Bile is known to assist in the absorption of

fat only

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