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Zoo lab exam 1
Terms in this set (68)
what are the seven classifications, from largest to smallest?
what is a binomen?
a two word name
what is true about a formal genus name?
-it is suppose to be capitalized and underlined
what is the difference between a scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscope?
- a scanning electron microscope does not zoom in as much as a transmission and provided 3D images
-TEM are usally used for subcellular organelles
can you see centrioles on a compound light microscope?
if you see the beginning of a cleavage furrow, what phase of the cell cycle are you witnessing?
what is a protostomia?
-protosomes are animals which the embryonic blastopore forms the mouth
is the Ribbon worm ( Cerebratulus) protostome or deuterostome?
what is a deuterostome?
-animals in which a secondary embryonic opening forms the mouth
what is a systematic?
studies of relationships among organisms
what are serially homologous structures?
structures that are repeated within an individual organism
what is homology?
-equivalence of structure that results from inheritance of a common ancestor
- no matter how similar or different they appear they were both derived from the ancestral structure
Sa ------> S"a"
what is convergence?
when organism have similar structures but do not share a common ancestor, rather they share similar selection pressures, to resemble one another in their respective descendants
how do we distinguish homologous from convergent structures?
-homologous structures, since from same ancestry, should have many similar details such as shape, composition, relationships
-convergent structures,on the other hand, may resemble one another in ways that only reflect functional similarity
what is the most striking examples of convergence in the mammals?
-the similarities of the marsupials and the placentals
how are bats and birds homologous?
-the wings of birds and bats, although not homologous as wings, are homologous as forelimbs
- the birds and bats shared a common ancestor with similar bone arrangement in forelimbs
what is a taxon?
any grouping of organisms in the hierarchical classification
what is serial homology?
similarity among repetitive structures within the same organism due to common embryonic origin
the five regions of the vertebrae
-Cervical= 7 vertebrae
-Thoracic= 12 vertebrae
-Lumbar= 5 vertebrae
-Sacral= 5 vertebrae
-Coccygeal= 5 vertebrae
do other animals have a coccygeal?
-no they have a caudal
-for all vertebrae in tails other than in humans
why is the pig forelimb designed the way it is?
-pig has its ula sticking out for better attachment of other muscles
-pig ulna & radius are close together
-pig only have two useful inner fingers
-toe reduction helps with running
why is the frog forelimb designed the way it is?
-frog has a fused radius and ulna called a radioulna, it is special to help with shock absorption
what is a spongocoel?
- a hollow interior, NOT a stomach or digestive tract
what is a cnidocyte?
- a cell usually in high concentrations in the tentacle that contains a structure called a nematocyst
-a nematocyst is poisonous and its fxn is to capture prey
what is polymorpoh?
multiple body shapes
what is mesoglea?
-the structure that gives jellyfish its jelly structure
-lots of water, few cells ,low metabolism
ribbon worm Cerebratulus and the sea star, Asterias both go through embryonic development. which one has radial cleavage, which one has spiral cleavage?
-Cerebratulus has spiral cleavage
-Asterias has radial cleavage
what is a tissue?
-an aggregation of cells and cell products of similar structure and embryonic origin that perform a common function
what is histology?
the study of tissues
what are the four major tissues
the protozoa have two animal-like properties, what are they?
-absence of a cell wall
-presence of at least one motile stage in the life cycle
where are protozoans found?
-fresh,marine, brackish water, and in most soils
do protozoans have organs or tissues?
-no, but they do have specific organelles that have funcctions such as skeletions, locomotory systems, sensory systems, conduction mechanism, defense mechanisms, and contractile systems
where are amoebas found?
-fresh water and seawater
was the amobea studied in lab a naked amobea or an amobeba enclosed in a shell?
what is a test?
a shell around an amoeba is called a test
what are autotrophs?
organism that can produce itself own fuel
what are heterotrophs?
organism that must consume other organisms for energy
what are the two major groups of flagellates
Euglena and Volvox
where is Euglena found?
most commonly in still pools and ponds that often give a green color to the water
where are Volvox generally found?
stagnant pools and ponds
trypanosomas are obligate heterotrophs, what is that? it is also osmotrophic, what is that
-they obtain their organic and inorganic compounds from the environment
-osmotrophic is when it absorbs its nutrients directly from the surround blood or other body fluid
what genus is the organism that causes African sleeping sickness called?
other word for spore formation
other word for multiple fission
Apicomplexans are entirely endoparasitic. true or false
what disease does Plamosdium cause?
how many people catch malaria and die annually?
-300 million catch it annually
-3 million die annually
what does malaria stand for?
how do identify an adult plasmodium in a RBC?
in RBC they become trophozoites, which have a signet-ring stage
where are paramecium found
freshwater where there is vegetation
members of phylum Porifera are said to belong to the ____ level of organization
what are the chief characteristics of sponges
-no true germ layers
where are Porifera found?
they live in clusters in shallow water attached to rocks, piling, or shells
what is an eumetazoan?
a true multicellular animal
characteristics of organisms in the phylum Cnidaria
-tissue level of organization
-two germ layers
what are the two main body types of the Cnidaria
polyp (hydroid) and medusa (jellyfish)
where are Hydra found?
-pools, quiet streams, and spring ponds, on the underside of leaves
how does the Hydra digest food?
-it sends it to the gastrovascular cavity, into which gland cells secrete digestive enzymes (extracellular digestion)
-food particles are then englufed by cells of the gastrodermis, in which digestion is complete (intracellular digestion)
where are Obelia found?
marine water attached to seaweed
where are Gonionemus found?
protected coastal areas in the US
what coral is known as the "Star coral"
where do Astrangia live and what do they eat?
-Atlantic and Gulf coasts
-they eat protozoans, hydroids, worms, crustaceans
the organism can have both male and female gonads
the organism is either all male or all female
characteristics of class hydrozoa
-found in fresh water or marine water
-medusa with velum
characteristics of class scyphozoa
-medusa stage emphasized
-medusa with no velum
characteristics of class anthozoa
- all polyps, no medusa
gastrovascular cavity divided by septa
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