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According to Freud, the ____ is "like a man on horseback who has to hold in check the superior strength of the horse."


Positive reinforcement involves

presentation of a positive stimulus

____ is a statistical procedure used by researchers to identify closely related clusters of variables, such as adjectives that all describe an underlying dimension of personality.

Factor analysis

According to Pavlov, the key to classical conditioning is the

temporal congruity between the ucs and the neutral stimulus

The initial stage of learning a response is called


If reinforcement is given for the first response after a changing period of time has elapsed (e.g., 5 sec, then 12 sec, then 9 sec) we are working with a(n) ____ schedule.

Variable interval

Joan is an unfailingly polite person who always considers the feelings of others. This tendency to act in a similar manner across situations is indicative of which of the following qualities of personality?


According to Jung, the ____ is a storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from people's ancestral past.

collective unconsciouus

Spontaneous recovery describes

the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus.

The crucial developmental task associated with the anal stage is

toilet training

Ego is to reality principle as

superego is to moral compass

Freud's psychoanalytic theory of personality focuses on all of the following EXCEPT

the potential for personal growth

According to Jung, one's collective unconscious contains

ancestral memories in the form of archetypes

Stimulus generalization occurs when

an organism responds to new stimuli that are similar to the original conditioned stimulus.

Frederick cringes every time he hears a dentist's drill, even when he is sitting in the waiting room of his dentist's office. In this example, the pain of dental drilling is

. an unconditioned stimulus.

A worker receives $1.00 for every two units he assembles. He is being paid on a ____ schedule.

fixed-ratio schedule

In the Little Albert experiment on conditioned emotional responses, stimulus generalization was shown when Albert showed the fear response to

the rabbit.

Extinction of a conditioned response in classical conditioning occurs when the

CS is repeatedly presented without the US.

An unlearned reaction to a stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning is

an unconditioned response.

According to Freud's theory, either excessive gratification or excessive frustration of needs may result in


An event following a response which increases an organism's tendency to make that response again is referred to as

a reinforcer.

According to the five-factor model of personality, people who score high in ____ are characterized as curious, flexible, imaginative and generally hold unconventional attitudes

openness to experience

Freud ascribed great importance to sexual and aggressive impulses, mainly because they

are rigidly controlled by society

Simon cringes every time he hears a dentist's drill, even when he is sitting in the waiting room of his dentist's office. In this example, cringing in the waiting room is

. a conditioned response.

According to Rogers, experiences that threaten a person's self-concept often result in the person experiencing

. anxiety.

Negative reinforcement involves

. the removal of an unpleasant stimulus.

A conditioned stimulus is

a previously neutral stimulus that, through conditioning, acquires the capacity to elicit a conditioned response.

A pigeon learns to peck at a disk lighted green to receive reinforcement, but not at a disk lighted red. This means that, for the pigeon, the color of the disk is a

discriminative stimulus

A type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus is known as

classical conditioning.

Four-year-old Sam has erotically tinged desires for his mother and also feels hostility to his father. Freud would conclude that Sam is experiencing the

. Oedipal complex.

A Freudian might explain a compulsive smoker's behavior as being the result of fixation at the

oral stage.

In higher-order conditioning ____ now functions as if it were ____.

a conditioned stimulus; an unconditioned stimulus

The gradual weakening and disappearance of a tendency to make a conditioned response that occurs when the CS is presented repeatedly without the UCS is termed

. extinction.

You have conditioned a fear response to a 1000-Hz tone. Now the tone is paired with a green light. Later, the green light alone elicits fear. This is an example of

higher-order conditioning.

By attributing our own unacceptable feelings to others and saying others have the feelings and not us, we are using


According to Freud, a basic defense mechanism that protects a person from anxiety by keeping distressing thoughts and feelings out of the conscious mind is


Sigmund Freud would have been LEAST likely to make which of the following statements?

Most of our behavior is rationally directed.

According to Rogers, the degree of disparity between one's self-concept and one's actual experience is termed


Hal is fearful of men who are friendly toward him, convinced that they are all homosexuals attempting to seduce him. Should it be the case that Hal is himself a latent homosexual, fearful of admitting this even to himself, we might conclude that he is using the defense mechanisms of repression and


The process of pushing distressing thoughts into the unconscious and keeping them there is known as


According to Freud, which of the following is entirely unconscious?

the id

Defense mechanisms combat feelings of anxiety and guilt

through self-deception.

According to the five-factor model of personality, people who score high in ____ are characterized as anxious, hostile, self-conscious, insecure and vulnerable.


Relative to extinction following continuous reinforcement, extinction following intermittent reinforcement

proceeds more slowly.

A discriminative stimulus is

a cue that indicates the probable consequences of an operant response.

The correct order of Freud's psychosexual stages of development is

. oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital.

According to the psychoanalytic view, many important life choices and decisions are based on

unconscious urges and mechanisms.

The id is

the primitive, instinctive component of personality.

Skye is five years old, and two weeks ago her mother had a baby boy. Since her brother was brought home, Skye has insisted on drinking all her juice from baby bottles, and she has started wetting her bed. According to Freud, Skye may be unconsciously dealing with her feelings toward her new brother using the defense mechanism of


Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which

a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus.

Freud believed that during the phallic stage, children develop erotically tinged desires for

the parent of the opposite sex.

In order to weaken or eliminate a conditioned response, you would present

the CS alone several times.

Behaviors that are acquired through intermittent, or partial, reinforcement instead of continuous reinforcement are

slower to be established, but more resistant to extinction.

The superego is Freud's term for

the moral component of personality.

Extinction of an operantly conditioned response occurs when the response

is no longer followed by reinforcement.

Continuing to pair a specific CS and US, but periodically presenting stimuli similar to the CS and not pairing them with the US, should result in

stimulus discrimination.

A reinforcement is given after a variable number of nonreinforced responses in a(n) ____ schedule.


Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which

responses come to be controlled by their consequences.

According to Skinner, the fundamental principle of operant conditioning is that organisms tend to repeat those responses that.

are followed by favorable consequences.

According to Freud, a person may become fixated at a particular psychosexual stage because of

either excessive gratification or excessive frustration of needs.

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