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IMED2001 Lecture 14 - Antibiotics
Terms in this set (37)
Natural Sources of antimicrobials include:
fungi, actinoymycetes, secondary metabolites
Semi-synthetic antimicrobials are based on an existing ____________________.
Antibiotics are ________________________ agents. These are chemicals that _______ or __________ the __________ of _________________.
chemotherapeutic, kill, inhibit, growth, microorganisms
Antibiotics that are active against specific groups of pathogens are known as?
Antibiotics that are active against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and/or a wide range of pathogens are known as?
Antibiotics that kill pathogens are known as?
Antibiotics that reversibly inhibit the growth of pathogens are known as?
An ideal antibiotic is _____________________. This means it is ________ to bacteria with minimal _______________.
selectively toxic, toxic, side effects
Purely synthetic antimicrobials are relatively _______, and are often discovered __________________.
Many factors influence the efficacy of antibiotics, including:
1. The drug must be able to _______ the ________ site.
2. The pathogen must be ____________ to the antibiotic
3. The drug must reach levels ________ enough to _________ the pathogen.
reach, infection, susceptible, high, inhibit
Penicillin is active against less organisms than when it was first discovered due to __________________________.
Bacteriostatic drugs put all organisms on "________", allowing the ___________________ to come and ______________ the _____________ which are now ________________.
pause, immune system, remove, bacteria, inhibited
Highly toxic antibiotics are usually ________________ against highly _________________ organisms.
last resorts, drug resistant
Beta-lactams do not have very high activity against ________________ bacteria, due to their thin _____________ and presence of the _________________
Gram-negative, cell wall, outer membrane
Different antibiotics have different _______________ of __________, which determines what site they _____________.
mechanisms, action, target
The major targets of antibiotics are:
2. __________________ synthesis
4. ________________ synthesis
cell wall, nucleic acid, cell membrane, protein, antimetabolite
Beta-lactams work by ________________ the _____________________ enzymes involved in the __________________ of the _________________ chains of the _________________________________________.
inhibiting, transpeptidation, cross-linking, polysaccharide, bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan
Penicillins only act on _____________________ bacteria.
Glycopeptides such as Vancomycin bind to _______________, blocking ______________ action. They are mainly active against Gram-___________ bacteria.
peptidoglycan, transpeptidase, positive
What is the main target of Beta-lactams and Glycopeptides?
Cell wall synthesis
Quinolones inhibit bacterial ________________________ required for ____________________.
DNA polymerase, DNA replication
Rifamycins inhibit bacterial _____________________.
What is the main target of Quinolones and Rifamycins?
Nucleic acid synthesis
Polymyxins bind to _____________________ on the __________________ of Gram-___________ bacteria. They have a __________-like action that essentially ___________ the ________________.
lipopolysaccharide, outer membrane, negative, detergent, dissolves, cell membrane
Polymyxins are selectively toxic for __________________ bacteria.
What is the main target of Polymyxins?
Antibiotics that target bacterial protein synthesis inhibit it by binding to either the _______ or _______ ________________________.
30S, 50S, ribosomal subunit
Tetracyclines are _______-spectrum drugs that are __________________. They are also active against ______________ pathogens. They bind to the ________ ribosomal subunit.
broad, bacteriostatic, intracellular, 30S
Aminoglycosides are ______________ and are mostly active against gram-___________ bacteria. They bind to the _______ ribosomal subunit.
bactericidal, negative, 30S
What is the main target of Tetracyclines and Aminoglycosides?
What ribosomal subunit do Tetracyclines and Aminoglycosides bind to?
What is the main target of Macrolides, Lincosamides, Streptogramins and Oxazolidinones?
What ribosomal subunit do Macrolides, Lincosamides, Streptogramins and Oxazolidinones bind to?
Sulfonamides interfere with bacterial ________________ synthesis.
In inhibition of tetrahydrofolic acid synthesis, it is more effective to combat ___________________ in the _______________ pathway, as some bacteria may be able to use ______________________ for a step that is blocked by a certain antibiotic.
multiple steps, biosynthetic, alternate pathways
Antibiotics that target cell walls are largely going to be active against what type of bacteria?
Isoniazid is used mainly in ______________ infections, and is thought to inhibit ________ synthesis, especially ___________________.
mycobacterial, lipid, mycolic acids
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