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24 terms

Chapter 5 and 6 terms

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adaptation
a trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce
species
group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
population
a group of organisms of the same species populating a given area
evolution
the process of change by which new species develop from preexisting species over time
sedimentary rock
the type of rock that is made of hardened sediment
fossil
preserved remains or evidence of an ancient organism
naturalist
a person who studies living things
natural selection
a process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully
generation time
the period between the birth of one generation and the birth of the next generation
speciation
the formation of new species as a result of evolution
relative dating
method of determining the age of a fossil by comparing its placement with that of fossils in other layers of rock (older is usually deeper)
absolute dating
determine actual age of fossil, compare amount of radioactive element in sample to amount of element into which it breaks down
paleontologist
scientist who studies fossils
extinct
no longer in existence
plate tectonics
the branch of geology studying the movement of the earth's crust
Precambrian time
Name for the time in earths early history that accounts for ninety percent of earth's time, but only very simple organisms lived. White Old Boring Cells
Paleozoic era
the part of geologic time 570-245 million years ago ; invertebrates, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, ferns, and cone-bearing trees were dominant. Yellow Bizarre sea creatures
Mesozoic era
middle life (245-144 million years ago); rise of mammals and dinosaurs; the rise of birds; extinction of dinosaurs, rise of flowering plants. Red Bloody Dinosaurs
Cenozoic era
era that began about 65 million years ago, known as the "Age of Mammals" Blue New Hairy
overproduction
organisms produce more offspring than can survive
variation
offspring are genetically different
struggle to survive
there is a competition for the available resources
survival of the fittest
individuals born with the "better" traits are more likely to "win" and live
inheritance of traits
those who live are able to mate and pass their traits on to the next generation