1617 GOPO Final Terms J-R
Terms in this set (63)
The first major opening up of American suffrage (voting rights) by Jackson's new Democratic Party in 1830s. Franchise extended to all white men (not just rich white men). Removed the rule that you had to own land and not be in debt to vote.
Jim Crow Era
Era in the South after Civil War (1865) until 1950s. African Americans were freed from slavery and could legally vote (Amendments 13, 14, 15) but were still subjected to discriminatory state laws enforcing segregation and kept from voting by laws (ex. poll taxes, literacy tests) and by violence (KKK)
Father of political liberalism (limited government to protect life liberty & property; right to revolt if government becomes a tyranny); he greatly influenced Jefferson & the Declaration of Independence.
Joint Chiefs of Staff
One General from each of the 4 armed service branches (army, navy, air force, marines) and, since 1/2012, the National Guard. Key military advisors to the President.
Congressional committees to discuss & supervise certain topics, with membership drawn from both houses. (ex., Committee on Library, Taxation)
A philosophy of judicial decision-making whereby judges allow their personal views about public policy (liberal or conservative) to guide their decisions. Are comfortable declaring laws unconstitutional.
Judicial Appointment Factors
Political ideology (litmus test); acceptability to Senate (not too radical); judicial experience; diversity
A philosophy of judicial decision-making whereby judges give significant deference to the decisions made by elected representatives in the legislative and executive branches. Are uncomfortable declaring laws unconstitutional. Maintain the status quo.
The power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional. Established in Marbury v. Madison
The right & power to make decisions in a particular area. Federal courts are courts of limited jurisdiction.
Person holding office after his or her replacement has been elected to the office, but before the current term has ended.
Supervision Congress making sure the Executive Branch and the Bureaucracy is correctly executing (carrying out) laws.
Belief in as much freedom and as little government as possible (tolerates some government to provide stability & security). Supports free market economy, no government regulation of morality, low taxes.
Line Item Veto
Law giving president power to veto portions of budget bill; purpose = reduce size of national deficit; declared unconstitutional (violates separation of powers)
A method to deny blacks right to vote during the Jim Crow Era by requiring reading or civics test in order to vote. Rationale: only the educated should vote. Prohibited by the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
The act of trying to influence a politician or bureaucrat. Usually done by highly paid insiders with access to people in power. Major weapon of corporate interest groups.
You support my bill, I'll support yours. Trading favors by legislators to help pass their bills.
Mapp v Ohio
1961 case incorporating 4th Amendment (and exclusionary rule) into 14th Amendment (Due Process Clause)
Marbury vs. Madison
Case that founds the power of judicial review: the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional.
The process by which a congressional subcommittee debates, amends, and/or rewrites bills.
McCulloch v. Maryland (1824)
Establishes doctrine of implied powers (Congress can create a national bank because it is necessary & proper to carrying out the enumerated power to coin money); (2) Supremacy clause prevents state (Maryland) from taxing the National Bank.
Motor Voter Act (1993)
Tried to increase voter turnout by allowing voter registration at same time as getting or renewing driver's license. Increased the registration rate, but not the voter turnout rate (people still apathetic or not motivated to vote)
The modern media trend for TV and radio shows to target very small ideological audiences (liberal shows on MSNBC and conservative shows on Fox News) Results in greater political polarization
The meeting of party delegates every four years to choose a presidential ticket and write the party's platform.
National Party Committee
National party organization that, with Congressional leaders and President, runs party affairs between national conventions. They do not have a lot of centralized power over the state or local level of the party.
National Security Counsel
Consults with the president on matters of defense and foreign policy.
Necessary and Proper Clause
Gives congress the power to do anything that it has to do to carry out an enumerated power. Also known as the "elastic clause."
The New Deal
Series of liberal (Keynesian) economic laws enacted by FDR to combat Great Depression. Includes Social Security System & federal minimum wage law. Birth of Democratic Party as liberal party
New Jersey Plan
Plan at Philadelphia Convention for equal representation in new Congress (1 state 1 vote). Also known as "small state plan." Opposite of the Virginia "big state" Plan. Becomes basis of representation in the Senate.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
Free trade agreement among USA, Canada & Mexico. Goal = promote economic prosperity & cooperation.
Office of Management and Budget
Executive Office of the President agency that helps the President prepare annual budget proposal and evaluates budget priorities and effectiveness of federal agencies (oversight)
Anyone can vote in any party primaries (but can only vote in the primaries of one party). Less party control over process.
Open Rule (aka Open Amendments)
An order from the House Rules Committee that permits a bill to be amended on the floor (allows "death by amendment")
The stage in Supreme Court proceedings in which attorneys for both sides appear before the Court to present their positions and answer questions posed by the justices.
The jurisdiction of courts to hear a case for the first time (trial).
A political party's statement of its goals and policies for the next four years, created at National Convention.
Patriot Act (2001)
Law responding to 9/11. Expands anti-terrorist powers (wiretapping, surveillance); 4th Amendment concern for civil liberties. Led to a growth of power of the NSA (National Security Agency)
Patronage System (aka Spoils System)
Filling government bureaucracy based on connections & political favors not merit (cronyism); ended by Pendleton Act (1883)
Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act
1883 reform law that replaced the patronage/spoils system in the federal bureaucracy with a merit-based professional system. "Important" leadership positions in bureaucracy (Secretaries, Commissioners, Directors) & federal judges still appointed by president, but lower positions filled by exam.
Occurs when a committee ignores a bill and doesn't report it out. Also known as "tabling" or "death by committee." Major cause of bill death.
One who brings a court action against another (the complainer)
Belief that American political system basically works; competing interest groups all get heard at different times and places in government.
If a bill is proposed within 10 days of congress adjourning and the president does not sign it , it will die (un-overrideable veto).
Political Action Committee
A committee set up by a corporation or interest group to raise and funnels money to political candidates. Donation amounts to them are limited by FECA rules (hard money).
A more or less consistent set of beliefs about what policies government should pursue.
The way people take part in the government. Main form = voting. Also joining political party, volunteering on political campaign, campaign contributions, running for office, protests.
A group of individuals with broad common interests who organize to nominate candidates for office, develop a platform (policy goals), win elections, and run government
The process by which individuals acquire (absorb) a sense of political identity (beliefs & behaviors). Key agents include family, media, peers.Process can be informal (family) or formal (school)
Fee on voting. Used to discourage African Americans from voting during the Jim Crow era. Also used to exclude poor whites. Declared unconstitutional by 24th Amendment.
A decision in a previous court case that is used as the basis for a decision in a similar case.
President's Budget Proposal
Detailed budget outline prepared by President & OMB. Sets priorities in discretionary spending & proposes changes to entitlement programs. Start of annual budget process.
One way for a state party to select delegates to send to the National Convention. Can be closed, open or blanket. Now used by most states instead of caucus (cheaper, quicker, more democratic).
The tendency of states to move their primaries & caucuses earlier in the calendar in order to maximize their impact on nomination process
Government censorship of written material (preventing publication). Almost impossible due to 1st Amendment (only when major threat to national security).
Process of ending government services and allowing the free market (private firms) to provide the service. Purpose = reduce government spending & provide more efficient services. Example = abolishing the postal service. Supported by Republicans.
Procedural Due Process
Literal meaning of 5th & 14th clauses: Government cannot deprive you of life, liberty or property without holding certain procedures (trial, lawyer, right to question witnesses).
The state or federal government attorney in a criminal case.
Short-term patriotic increase in president's popularity and power during times of serious international crisis or war (e.g. Bush after 9/11)
Major foreign policy ideology. Act in the world only to protect and benefit yourself. (Contrast with idealism)
When a STATE legislature or independent commission draws new House district lines (if gain/loss of seats after reapportionment process based on census every ten years)
Representative democracy. People vote for representatives who make laws. Sovereignty rests with the people, as opposed to a king or monarch.
One of the two major modern American political parties. It emerged in the 1850s as an antislavery party and consisted of former northern Whigs and antislavery Democrats. Now the party is conservative (pro-life, anti-affirmative action, anti-too much government intervention, anti-taxing on the rich, pro-death penalty)
Rule of 4
How the Supreme Court decides whether to hear a case. Requires four or more justices to "grant certiorari" (agree to hear an appeal). Supreme Court agrees to hear <1% of cases.
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