a group of people working together in structured and coordinated fashion to achieve a set of goals
process of planning, organizing, leading and controlling an organization's resources to achieve its goals
using resources wisely and in a cost effective way
relatively small group of senior executives who manage the overall organization (president, vice president, CEO)
relatively larger group of managers responsible for implementing the policies and plans developed by top managers and for supervising and coordinating acitivities of lower level managers
first line mangers
managers who supervise and coordinate activities of operating employees
management process of determining what an organization needs to do and how best to get it done
the process of selecting a course of action
determining how activities and resources are to be grouped
set of processes used to get members of the organization to work together to further the interests of the organization
monitoring organizational progress to goal attainment
skills necessary to accomplish or understand specific kind of work being done in an organization
ability to communicate with, understand and motivate both individuals and groups
managers ability to think in abstract
managers ability to visualize the most appropriate response to a situation
manager's ability to effectively convey ideas and define problems and opportunities and to then select appropriate course of action to solve problems and capitalize opportunities
manager's ability to priortize work, to work efficiently and delegate appropriately
conceptual framework for organizing knowledge and providing a blueprint for action
classical management perspective
consists of 2 distinct branches-scientific management & administrative management
concerned with improving the performance of individual workers
When workers deliberately slow their pace or restrict their work outputs
focus on managing the total organization
behavioral management perspective
emphasizes individual attitudes and behaviors and group processes
human relations movement
argued that workers respond primarily to the social context of the workplace
assumes that workers are basically lazy, error-prone, and extrinsically motivated by money and, thus, should be directed from above
Assumes that, given challenge and freedom, workers are motivated to achieve self-esteem and to demonstrate their competence and creativity
contemporary field focusing on behavioral aspects on management
Quantitative Management Perspective
applies quantitative techniques to management
A discipline in which mathematical methods are applied to management problems in pursuit of optimal solutions that cannot readily be obtained by common sense.
concerned with helping the organization more efficiently produce its products or services
a group of independent but interrelated elements comprising a unified whole
a system that interacts with the external environment
A system that cannot exchange matter or energy with its surroundings.
a system that is part of some larger system
the interaction of two or more agents or forces so that their combined effect is greater than the sum of their individual effects
process leading to system decline
attempt to identify one best way of doing something
suggests that appropriate managerial behavior in given situation depends on, or is contingent on, a wide variety of elements
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