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a group of people working together in structured and coordinated fashion to achieve a set of goals


process of planning, organizing, leading and controlling an organization's resources to achieve its goals


using resources wisely and in a cost effective way

top managers

relatively small group of senior executives who manage the overall organization (president, vice president, CEO)

middle managers

relatively larger group of managers responsible for implementing the policies and plans developed by top managers and for supervising and coordinating acitivities of lower level managers

first line mangers

managers who supervise and coordinate activities of operating employees


management process of determining what an organization needs to do and how best to get it done

decision making

the process of selecting a course of action


determining how activities and resources are to be grouped


set of processes used to get members of the organization to work together to further the interests of the organization


monitoring organizational progress to goal attainment

technical skills

skills necessary to accomplish or understand specific kind of work being done in an organization

interpersonal skills

ability to communicate with, understand and motivate both individuals and groups

conceptual skills

managers ability to think in abstract

diagnostic skills

managers ability to visualize the most appropriate response to a situation

communication skills

manager's ability to effectively convey ideas and define problems and opportunities and to then select appropriate course of action to solve problems and capitalize opportunities

time management

manager's ability to priortize work, to work efficiently and delegate appropriately


conceptual framework for organizing knowledge and providing a blueprint for action

classical management perspective

consists of 2 distinct branches-scientific management & administrative management

scientific management

concerned with improving the performance of individual workers


When workers deliberately slow their pace or restrict their work outputs

adminstrative management

focus on managing the total organization

behavioral management perspective

emphasizes individual attitudes and behaviors and group processes

human relations movement

argued that workers respond primarily to the social context of the workplace

theory X

assumes that workers are basically lazy, error-prone, and extrinsically motivated by money and, thus, should be directed from above

Theory Y

Assumes that, given challenge and freedom, workers are motivated to achieve self-esteem and to demonstrate their competence and creativity

organizational behavior

contemporary field focusing on behavioral aspects on management

Quantitative Management Perspective

applies quantitative techniques to management

management science

A discipline in which mathematical methods are applied to management problems in pursuit of optimal solutions that cannot readily be obtained by common sense.

operations management

concerned with helping the organization more efficiently produce its products or services


a group of independent but interrelated elements comprising a unified whole

open system

a system that interacts with the external environment

closed system

A system that cannot exchange matter or energy with its surroundings.


a system that is part of some larger system


the interaction of two or more agents or forces so that their combined effect is greater than the sum of their individual effects


process leading to system decline

universal perspective

attempt to identify one best way of doing something

contingency perspective

suggests that appropriate managerial behavior in given situation depends on, or is contingent on, a wide variety of elements

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