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41 terms

US History Key Terms

Chapter 11 & 12
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Sacajawea
assisted Lewis & Clark on their expedition from 1804-1806. she and her husband were their guides from the great plains to the pacific ocean, and then back. She was a big contribution to their success because she knew how to make medicine, she knew how to get supplies, and she prevented them from getting hurt by tribes because they would see an indian woman with them. therefore, she was an important figure in their lives. when they were returning, she was their guide because they were so lost.
Lewis & Clark Expedition
Famous explorers. expedition led to the exploration of western North America, through lands that now compose states such as Illinois, Missouri, Idaho, Washington and Oregon. The exact trail that the famous explorers traveled is not known since they followed rivers, and over time rivers have shifted course as a result of natural occurrences and the formation of dams. Lewis and Clark didn't officially discover western North America, since Native Americans had long occupied and explored these areas
impressment
when a man would be forced into the army. 2,500 sailors were impressed by the british. they would take their men from the boat and just tell em to get on theirz
Battle of New Orleans
This 1815 battle was the last of the War of 1812, and it actually occurred after the Treaty of Ghent had been signed because Americans were unaware of the treaty. General Andrew Jackson successfully defended New Orleans against thousands of British troops, making himself a national hero and making Americans feel nationalistic--that they were one of the top world powers (even though the war itself ended in stalemate).
Tecumseh
A Shawnee chief who, along with his brother, Tenskwatawa, a religious leader known as The Prophet, worked to unite the Northwestern Indian tribes. The league of tribes was defeated by an American army led by William Henry Harrison at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. Tecumseh was killed fighting for the British during the War of 1812 at the Battle of the Thames in 1813.
Aaron Burr
served as the 3rd Vice President of the United States. Member of the Republicans and President of the Senate during his Vice Presidency. He was defamed by the press, often by writings of Hamilton. Challenged Hamilton to a duel in 1804 and killed him.
Thomas Jefferson
Virginian, architect, author, governor, and president. Lived at Monticello. Wrote the Declaration of Independence. Second governor of Virgina. Third president of the United States. Designed the buildings of the University of Virginia.
Dolley Madison
wife of President Madison, who rescued documents and George Washington's portrait before it could be burned down in the White House by the British. best known for her pleasant, open direction of White House social life
James Monroe
He was the fifth President of the United States. He is the author of the Monroe Doctrine. Proclaimed that the Americas should be closed to future European colonization and free from European interference in sovereign countries' affairs. It further stated the United States' intention to stay neutral in European wars
John Quincy Adams
Secretary of State, He served as sixth president under Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the United States Florida in exchange for the United States dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams' work.
Gabriel's Rebellion
Gabriel was a literate enslaved blacksmith who planned to lead a large slave rebellion in the Richmond area in the summer of 1800. However, information regarding the revolt was leaked prior to its execution, thus Gabriel's plans were foiled. Gabriel and twenty-five other members of the revolt were hanged. In reaction, the Virginia and other legislatures passed restrictions on free blacks, as well as the education, movement and hiring out of the enslaved.
Louisiana Purchase
The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size.
Embargo Act of 1807
Jefferson's response to the cry for war. prohibited american ships from leaving port for any foreign destination, so they completely avoided France/Britain ships. Resulted in an economic depression, his most unpopular policy of both terms.
Battle of Tippencanoe
Shawnees vs. William henry Harrison, indians lost, colonists thought the indians had been working with the british, tecumseh was the leader of the indians
War Hawks
Southerners and Westerners who were eager for war with Britain. They had a strong sense of nationalism, and they wanted to takeover British land in North America and expand.
Creek War
another name given to the war of 1812 by southerners and georgians who suspected britain of supplying the creek with weapons
Hartford Convention
Meeting by Federalists dissatisfied with the war to draft a new Constitution; resulted in seemingly traitorous Federalist party's collapse
Missouri Compromise
agreement, proposed in 1819 by Henry Clay, to keep the number of slave and free states equal
Monroe Doctrine
President James Monroe's statement forbidding further colonization in the Americas and declaring that any attempt by a foreign country to colonize would be considered an act of hostility
Andrew Jackson
7th president of the US; successfully defended New Orleans from the British in 1815; expanded the power of the presidency. democrat
Henry Clay
Distinguished senator from Kentucky, who ran for president five times until his death in 1852. He was a strong supporter of the American System, a war hawk for the War of 1812, Speaker of the House of Representatives, and known as "The Great Compromiser." Outlined the Compromise of 1850 with five main points. Died before it was passed however.
John C. Calhoun
The 7th Vice President of the United States and a leading Southern politician from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century. He was an advocate of slavery, states' rights, limited government, and nullification.
David Walker
He was a black abolitionist who called for the immediate emancipation of slaves. He wrote the "Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World." It called for a bloody end to white supremacy. He believed that the only way to end slavery was for slaves to physically revolt.
Charles Grandison Finney
One of the most important leaders in the Second Great Awakening. Began preaching about Christianity, he believed sin was avoidable and to prove one's faith to do good deeds
Martin Van Buren
senator from NY, vice president to jackson, and president of the United States; the Panic of 1837 ruined his presidency, and he was voted out of office in 1840. Democrat
William Henry Harrison
was an American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office. His death created a brief constitutional crisis, but ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution until passage of the 25th Amendment. Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe.
Erie Canal
a 363-mile-long artificial waterway connecting the Hudson River with Lake Erie, built between 1817 and 1825 to connect eastern US and the Great Lakes in the midwest in order to increase settlement and trade
Lowell Mills
Factories using young, unmarried women laborers; increased efficiency in textiles
panic of 1819
Economic panic caused by extensive speculation and a decline of European demand for American goods along with mismanagement within the Second Bank of the United States. Often cited as the end of the Era of Good Feelings.
Whigs
conservatives and popular with pro-Bank people and plantation owners. They mainly came from the National Republican Party, which was once largely Federalists. They took their name from the British political party that had opposed King George during the American Revolution. Their policies included support of industry, protective tariffs, and Clay's American System. They were generally upper class in origin. Included Clay and Webster. supported independence
Trail of Tears
Refers to the forced relocation in 1838 of the Cherokee Native American tribe to the Western United States, which resulted in the deaths of an estimated 4,000 Cherokees. Resulted from the enforcement of the Treaty of New Echota, an agreement signed under the provisions of the Indian Removal Act.
Indian Removal act of 1830
Jackson's policy led to the forceed uprooting of more than 100, 000 Indians; in 1830, Congress passed this act providing for the transplanting of all Indian tribes then resident east of the Mississippi
Second Bank of United States
national bank organized in 1816; closely modeled after the first Bank of the United States, it held federal tax receipts and regulated the amount of money circulating in the economy. The Bank proved to be very unpopular among western land speculators and farmers, especially after the Panic of 1819
nullification
the idea of a state declaring a federal law illegal
2nd Great Awakening
Series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on methodism and baptism, stressed philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for protestants. Attracted women, African Americans,and Native Americans.
panic of 1837
First Depression in American history; Banks lost money, people lost faith in banks, and country lost faith in President Martin van Buren; lasted four years; due to large state debts, expansion of credit by numerous, unfavorable balance of crop failures, and frenzy that was caused by the avalanche of land speculation.
seperate spheres
Nineteenth-century idea in Western societies that men and women, especially of the middle class, should have clearly differentiated roles in society: women as wives, mothers, and homemakers; men as breadwinners and participants in business and politics.
William Lloyd Garrison
An abolitionist and the editor of the radical abolitionist newspaper, The Liberator, and also one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
democrats
political party that generally stressed individual liberty, the rights of the common people, lead by Andrew Jackson from 1828 to 1856.
Angelina and Sarah Grimké
The daughters of a wealthy slave owner. they came to hate slavery and moved to philadelphia and spoke out about slave rights
American Temperence Society
Society established in 1826 in Boston, which promoted Temperance, hence favoring the riddance of alcohol; They believed that it yielded negative effects in the household; Also favored the abolition of slavery, expanding women's rights, temperance, and the improvement of society.