Terms in this set (100)
high blood urea nitrogen
UOP below 50cc / 24 hours
waking up to void at night
UOP of below 500ml/day
high nitrogenous waste products (renal failure)
a condition involving abnormally high levels of waste products in the blood
peeing in the bed
UOP greater than 2000ml/day
bacteria in the urine
blood in the urine
protein in the urine
WBCs in the urine
part of the nephron
bladder hold ______ of urine
can treat an "overactive" bladder
reasons for urethral strictures
most common complication of urethral strictures
treatment for urethral strictures
dilation of the urethra
in severe cases: removal of the stricture!!
most common symptom of urethral stricture
obstruction of urine flow
surgical treatment for urethral strictures is called
if urine sits in the bladder for too long it can cause
infection of kidney stones
hormone produced by the kidneys
is also given as a medication
when the kidneys are "sick" people have...
stones in the urinary tract
stones in the kidney
stones in the ureter
conditions for stone formation
damage to the lining of the urinary tract
increase calcium in the blood and urine
where do kidney stones form?
in the pelvis of the kidney
staghorn kidney stone
kidney stone that takes up more than one branch of the kidney
BLOCKS THE FLOW OF THE URINE
most common type of kidney stone
#1 reason for kidney stones
pH for urine is
4 - 8
#1 priority for pts with kidney stones
diagnosing a kidney stone
IVP (where they put dye in the body and x-ray kidney and structures)
KUB (kidneys ureters and bladder x-ray)
CT or MRI
24 hour urine testing
risk factors for kidney stones
increased uric acid
what can help prevent kidney stones?
different types of stones
cystine (protein stones)
phosphate salt stones
main thing seen in a urine analysis
looking at the type of stone to see what kind it is!
urinary stasis means...
where does kidney pain radiate to?
flank pain that radiates
what does the parathyroid hormone overproduction have to do with kidney stones?
releases too much calcium, causing calcium stones
inject the dye
BUN normal level should be..
creatinine normal level should be..
BUN and Creatinine levels will be high when...
kidneys aren't working good
if the BUN is low, what else will be low?
(if BUN is high, protein will also be high)
the kidney's ability to handle creatinine is called...
creatinine clearance rate
glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is...
rate that the blood flows through the kidneys
how good your kidneys are filtering
a GFR of 60 or higher is NORMAL!!
blood creatinine level is measured...
as a test of kidney function
BUN will increase with...
BUN will decrease with...
end stage liver disease
low protein diet
expanded fluid volume (pregnancy)
which is the best indicator of renal function??
with an ultrasound, you want the bladder to be...
with a bladder scanner, you are looking for..
have the pt pee before the scan to see how much they are retaining
what allergies would you assess when doing a IVP?
contrast dye and shellfish
what labs would you look at before doing an IVP??
BUN and Creatinine!!
what drug would you hold before doing an IVP surgery??
DONT WANT TO GIVE THEM CONTRAST DYE AND THE METFORMIN BECAUSE IT WILL KILL THEIR KIDNEYS!!
what is metformin used for??
things to do before IVP
-encourage fluids the day before
-NPO after midnight
-check BUN and Creatinine levels
-hold metformin 24 hrs before surgery!!
things to do after IVP
-IV fluids/oral fluids to flush out dye
-diuretics may be given to flush out
-follow up BUN and Creatinine levels before metformin is resumed
-monitor urine output
used to look at the bladder
if you go further up, ureters and urethra
pre procedure things to do before cystoscopy
post procedure things to do after cystoscopy
monitor bleeding and infection
moist heat to the lower abdomen
sitz bath to minimize pain and relax muscles
anti spasmodic meds (flavoxate)
intermittent cath them (in and out cath)
make sure pt pees before discharge
urinalysis checks for...
specific gravity (1.010-1.025)
pH (normally acidic)
glucose (normally none unless pregnant)
ketones (should be none)
protein (should be none)
nitrate (should be none)
leukoesterase (should be none unless infection)
urolithiasis tx depends on..
what kind it is
what size it is
how many there are
location of stone
limit animal protein for what kind of stones?
calcium phosphate stones
avoid high salt foods
avoid calcium supplements
avoid oxalate foods
avoid high phosphate foods
foods containing oxalate
high phosphate foods
red and organ meats
two important post op things to monitor for cystoscope
bleeding and infection!!
specific gravity is..
how concentrated your urine is
if specific gravity is high it could mean...
drains straight from kidneys to the outside of the body into a bag
-monitor the site for leaking urine, bleeding, infection
stones in the ureters are removed
incision into the kidney to remove stone
may end up needing a urine bag
remove part of or all of kidney
stones in the kidney pelvis are removed
stones removed from bladder
pain is PRIORITY!! what drugs to give??
nursing interventions with kidney stones
high fluid intake (3-4L/day)
monitor renal function (I&Os, daily weight)
urine is backing up; kidneys produce urine behind the obstruction
shock waves to break up the stone
big things to consider with lithotripsy
monitor HEART RHYTHM
no metal on pt
monitor for bruising
lots of fluids to flush out broken stone (make sure to strain the urine!!)
drain the urine from the kidney
ketorolac is also..
helps with spasms
pain caused by stone stretching the ureters
diagnostic tests (least invasive to most invasive) name 4
2. CT or MRI
3. IV Urography