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85 terms

AP English Language and Composition

I got the terms from Cliff Notes Prep book for 2010
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ad hominem argument
From the Latin meaning "to or against the man". This argument appeals to emotion rather than reason, to feeling rather than intellect
allegory
The device of using character and/or story elements symbolically to represent an abstraction in addition to the literal meaning
alliteration
the repetition of sounds, especially initial consonant sounds in two or more neighboring words (as in "she sells sea shells").
allusion
a direct or indirect reference to something that is presumably commonly know, such as an event, book, myth, place, or work of art.
ambiguity
The multiple meanings, either intentional or unintentional, of a word, phrase, sentence, or passage
analogy
a similarity or comparison between two different things or the relationship between them
antecedent
the word, phrase, or clause, referred to by a pronoun
antithesis
a figure of speech involving a seeming contradiction of ideas, words, clauses, or sentences within a a balanced grammatical structure.
aphorism
a terse statement of known authorship that expresses a general truth or moral principle.
apostrophe
a figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or personified abstraction, such as liberty or love. The effect may add familiarity or emotional tensity.
atmosphere
The emotional mood created by the entirety of a literary work, established partly by the setting and partly by the author's choice of objects that are described
caricature
a representation, especially pictorial or literary, in which the subject's distinctive features or peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated to produce a comic or grotesque effect.
chiasmus
a figure of speech based on inverted parallelism. It is a rhetorical figure in which to clauses are related to each another through a reversal of terms. The purpose is usually to amake a larger point or to provide balance or order.
clause
a grammatical unit that contains both a subject and a verb.
colloquialism
slang or informality in speech or writing. Not generally acceptable for formals writing.
conceit
a fanciful expression, usually in the form of an extended metaphor or surprising analogy between seemingly dissimilar objects
connotation
the nonliteral, associative meaning of a word; the implied, suggested meaning.
denotation
the strict, literal, dictionary definition of word, devoid of any emotion, attitude, or color
diction
related to style, _____ refers to the writer's word choices, especially with regard to their correctness, clearness, or effectiveness.
didactic
From the Greek, "_____" literally means "instructive" _____ works have the primary aim of teaching or instructing, especially the teaching of moral or ethical principles
euphemism
From the Greek for "good speech" _______ are a more agreeable or less offensive substitute for generally unpleasant words or concepts.
extended metaphor
a metaphor developed at great length, occurrring frequently in or throughout a work.
figurative language
writing or speech that is not intended to carry literal meaning and is usually mean to be imaginative and vivid
figure of speech
a device used to produce figurative language. Many compare dissimilar things.
generic conventions
this terms describes traditions for each genre. These ______ help to define each genre; for example, they differentiate between an essay and journalistic writing or an autobiography and political writing
genre
the major category into which a literary work fits. The basic divisions are prose, poetry, and drama.
homily
this term literally means "sermon" but more imformally, it can include any serious talk, speech, or lecture, involving moral or spiritual advice
hyperbole
a figure of speech using deliberate exaggeration or overstatement
imagery
the sensory details or figurative language used to describe, arouse emotion, or represent abstractions. On a physicals level, ______ uses terms related to the five senses; we refer to visual, auditory, tactile, gustatory, or olfactory ______.
inference/infer
to draw a reasonable conclusion from the information presented.
invective
an emotionally violent, verbal denunciation or attack using strong, abusive language.
irony/ironic
the contrast between what is stated explicitly and what is really meant; the difference between what appears to be and what actually is true.
verbal irony
in this type of irony, words literally state the opposite of the writer's (or speaker's) true meaning
situational irony
in this type of irony, events turn out the opposite of what was expected. What the characters and readers think ought to happen does not actually happen
dramatic irony
in this type of irony, facts or events are unknown to a character in a play or piece of fiction but known to the reader, audience, or other characters in the work.
juxtaposition
Placing dissimilar items, descriptions, or ideas close together or side by side, especially for comparison or contrast
loose sentence
a type of sentence in which the main idea (independent clause) comes first, followed by dependent grammatical units such as phrases and clauses
metaphor
a figure of speech using implied comparison of seemingly unlike things or the substitution of one for the other, suggesting some similarity.
metonymy
a term for the Greek meaning "changed label" or "substitute name", _______ is a figure of speech in which the name of one object is substituted for that of another closely associated with it.
mood
this term has two distinct meanings in English writing. First meaning is grammatical and deals with verbal units and a speaker's attitude. The indicative _____ is used only for factual sentences like "Joe eats too quickly." The subjunctive ____ is used for a adoubtful or conditional attitude like "If I were you, I'd get another job". The imperative _____ is used for commands like "Shut the door!". The second meaning of the term is literary, meaning the prevailing atmosphere or emotional aura of a work.
narrative
the telling of a story or an account of an event or series of events
onomatopoeia
a figure of speech in which natural sounds are imitated in the sounds of words
oxymoron
from the Greek "pointedly foolish", an ______ is a figure of speech wherein the author groups apparently contradictory terms to suggest a paradox.
paradox
A statement that appears to be self-contradictory or opposed to common sense, but upon closer inspection contains some dgree of truth or validity.
parallelism
this term comes from the Greek roots meaning "beside one another" It refers to the grammatical or rhetorical framing of words, phrases, sentences, or paragraphs to give structural similarity
parody
a work that closely imitates the style or content of another with the specific aim of comic effect and/or ridicule.
pedantic
an adjective that describes words, phrases, or general tone that is overly scholarly, academic, or bookish
periodic sentence
a sentence that presents its central meaning in a main clause at the end
personification
a figure of speech in which the author presents or describes concepts, animals, or inanimate objects by endowing them with human attributes or emotions.
point of view
in literature, the perspective from which the story is told. There are two general divisions: first person narrator and third person narrator in which there is omniscient and limited omniscient third person narrator
predicate adjectives
one type of subject complement- an adjective, group of adjectives, or adjective clause that follows a linking verb
predicate nominative
on type of subject complement- a noun, group of nouns, or noun clause that renames the subject
prose
one of the major divisions of genre, ____ refers to fiction of nonfiction, including all its forms, because they are written in ordinary language and most closely resemble everday speech.
repetition
the duplication, either exact or approximate, of any element of language, such as a sound, word, phrase, clause, sentence, or grammatical pattern
rhetoric
from the Greek for "orator" this term describes the principles governing the art of writing effectively, eloquently, and persuasively.
rhetorical appeal
the persuasive device by which a writer tries to sway the audience's attention and response to any given work
Logos
A rhetorical appeal that employs logical reasoning, combining a clear idea (or multiple ideas) with well-thought-out and appropriate examples and details
Ethos
A rhetorical appeal that establishes credibility in the speaker.
Pathos
a rhetorical appeal that plays on the reader's emotions and interests. A sympathetic audience is more likely to accept a writer's assertions, so this appeal draws upon that understanding and uses it to the writer's advantage
rhetorical modes
this flexible term describes the variety, the conventions, and the purposes of the major kinds of writing. There are four major sub-categories
exposition
this rhetorical mode's purpose is to explain and analyze information by presenting an idea, relevant evidence, and appropriate discussion
argumentation
this rhetorical mode's purpose is to prove the validity of an idea, or point of view, by presenting sound reasoning, thoughtful discussion, and insightful argument that thoroughly convince the reader.
description
this rhetorical mode's purpose is to re-create, invent, or visually present a person, place, event, or action so that the reader can picture that being described
narration
this rhetorical mode's purpose is to tell a story or narrate an event or series of events.
rhetorical question
a question that is asked merely for effect and does not expect a reply. The answer is assumed
sarcasm
from the Greek "to tear flesh", _____ involves bitter, caustic language that is meant to hurt or ridicule someone or something. It may use irony as a device, but not all ironic statements are _______
satire
a work that targets human vices or follies, or social institutions and conventions, for reform or ridicule.
simile
an explicit comparison, normally using "like" or "as" or "if".
style
an evaluation of the sum of choices an author makes in blending diction, syntax, figurative language, and other literary devices. It can also be used to classify an author to a group and compare the author to other authors
subject complement
the word (with any accompanying phrases) or clause that follows a linking verb and complements or completes the subject of the sentence by either 1) renaming it or 2) describing it.
subordinate clause
Like all clauses, this word group contains both a subject and a verb (plus any accompanying phrases or modifiers), but like the independent clause, the _______ cannot stand alone; it does not express a complete thought
syllogism
From the Greek "reckoning together" a ______ is a deductive system of formal logic that presents two premises- the first one called the "major" and the second "minor"- that inevitably lead to a sound conclusion. Example: Major Premise: All men are mortal. Minor Premise: Socrates is a man. Conclusion: Therefore, Socrates is mortal
symbol/symbolism
generally, anything that represents or stand for something else
Natural symbol
this type of symbol uses objects and occurrences from nature to represent ideas commonly associated with them
Conventional symbol
this type of symbol is one that has been invested with meaning by a group (religious symbols like Star of David or the Cross)
LIterary symbol
this type of symbol is sometimes also conventional in the sense that they are found in variety of works and are generally recognized. However, this symbol may be more complicated such as the whale in Moby Dick and the jungle in Heart of Darkness
syntax
the way an author chooses to join words into phrases, clauses, and sentences. ______ is similar to diction, but you can differentiate the two by thinking of _______ as referring to groups of words, while diction refers to individual words.
theme
the central idea or message of a work, the insight it offers into life.
thesis
In expository writing, the ________ is the sentence or group of sentences that directly expresses the author's opinion, purpose, meaning, or proposition.
tone
similar to mood, ______ describes the author's attitude toward his or her material, the audience, or both
transition
a word or phrase that links different ideas
understatement
the ironic minimizing of fact, _____ presents something as less significant than it is. The effect can frequently be humorous and emphatic
litotes
a figure of speech by which an affirmation is made indirectly by denying its opposite. It uses understatement for emphasis, frequently with a negative assertion.
meiosis
The Greek term for understatement or belittling; a rhetorical figure by which something is referred to in terms less important than it really deserves.
wit
in modern usage, _____ is intellectually amusing language that surprises and delights