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75 terms

Chapter 28 SBS

Radiology
STUDY
PLAY
radiology
the branch of medicine that uses radiant energy to diagnose and treat patients
radiography
broad term used to indicate any number of methods used by radiiologists to do diagnostic testing
fluoroscopy
x-ray procedure that allows the visualization of internal organs in motion
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
radiology technique that uses magnetism, radio waves and a computer to produce images of body structures
tomography
process of producing a tomogram, a two-dimensional image of a slice or section, through a three-dimensional object
biometry
application of a statistical method to a biologic fact
planes
terminology referring to planes of the body and the positioning of the body used in radiology
position
is how the patient is placed during the x-ray examination
projection
is the path of the x-ray beam
prone
means the patient is lying on his or her anterior (front)
proximal
directional body reference closest to the trunk of the body
distal
directional body reference furthest from the trunk of the body
anteposterior (AP) position
(front to back)patient has front closes to the x-ray machine, and the x-ray travels through the patient from the front to the back
posteroanterior (PA) position
the patient has his back located closes to the machine and the beam travels through the patient from back to front
lateral position
side positions; when right side is closest to the film, it is called right lateral; when left side is closest to the film, it is called left lateral
dorsal position
commonly refers to back; supine means lying on the back
ventral position
commonly refers to anterior; prone means lying on the stomach
decubitus positions
are recumbent (lying) positions; the x-ray beam is placed horizontally.
recumbent
means lying down
oblique view
those obtained while the body is rotated so it is not in a full anteroposterior or posteroanterior position, but somewhat diagonal
left anterior oblique (LAO)
patient's left side rotated forward toward the table
right anterior oblique (RAO)
patient on his or her right side rotated forward toward the table
left posterior oblique (LPO)
patient is rotated so that the left posterior aspect of his body is against the table
right posterior oblique (RPO)
patient with right side rotated back toward the table
tangential projection
allows the beam to skim the body part, which produces a profile of the structure of the body
axial projection
projection that allos the beam to pass through the body part lengthwise
professional
describes the services of the physician, including the taking and interpretration w/report of x-rays
technical
describes the services of the technologist, as well as the use of the equipment, film and other supplies
global
describes the combination of the professional and technical components
component, or combination coding
a code from the radiology section as well as a code from one of the other sections must be reported to fully describe the procedure
injection of a contrast material
CPT code from surgery section must be used to indicate the injection and HCPCS Level II code is reported for the contrast substance, such as A4641
if descriptions state "radiologic supervision and interpretation" alert you to
-26 or -TC may be appropriate
MUEs
medically unlikely edits
report supply of contrast material
in Medicine section 99070 or HCPCS code; prefer HCPCS coding
computed axial tompgraphy
CAT or CT tomographic images of slices of specific parts of the body
angiography
dyes injected into the vessels to add contrast that facilitates the visualization of vessels' lumen size and condition
mammography
the use of diagnostic radiology to detect breast tumors or other abnormal breast conditions
diagnostic ultrasound
use of high frequency sound waves to image anatomic structures and to detect the cause of ilness and disease
interventional radiologist
a physician who is skilled in both the surgical procedure and the radiology portion of an interventional radiologic service; board certified
transducer
device in which ultrasound waves are sent through body tissues
sonography
technical term for ultrasound testing and recording
A-mode ultrasound
one-dimensional display reflecting the time it takes the sound wave to reach a structure and reflect back
M-mode ultrasound
one-dimensional display of the movement of structures. "M" stands for motion.
B-scan ultrasound
two-dimensional display of the movement of tissues and organs. "B" stand for brightness. Sound waves bounce off tissue or organs and are projected onto a black and white television screen.
Real-time scan ultrasound
two-dimensional display of both the structure and the motion of tissues and organs that in dicates the size, shape, and movementof the tissue or organ
Doppler ultrasound
use of sound that can be transmitted only through solids or liquids and is a specific version of ultrasonography, or ultrasound.
radiation oncology
utilization of radiation to destroy tumors
Simple clinical treatment planning
requires that there be a single treatment area that is encompassed by a single port or by simple parallel opposed ports with simple or no blocking
intermediate clinical treatment planning
requires that there be three or more converging ports, two separate treatment areas, multiple blocks or special time/dose constraints
complex clinical treatment planning
requires that there be highly complex blocking, custom shielding blocks, tangential ports, special wedges or compensators, three or more separate treatment areas, rotational or special beam consideration or a combination of therapeutic modalities
single simulation
single treatment area, with either a single port or parallel opposed ports and simple or no blocking
intermediate simulation
three or more converging ports, with tw2o separate treatment areas and multiple blocks
comples simulation
three or more treatment areas, rotation or arc therapy, complex blocking, custom shielding blocks, brachytherapy source verification, and any use of contrast material
three-dimensional simulation
(3D) computer-generated reconstruction of tumor volume and surrounding critical normal tissue structures based on direct CT scan and/or MRI data in preparation for non-coplanar or coplanar therapy.
Simulation required billing
If any change is made in the field of treatment, a new simulation billing is required
location of clinical treatment planning
in the index of the CPT manual under the main term "Radiation Therapy" or "Field Set-up"
dosimetry
calculation of the radiation dose and placement
radiation treatment is delivered in units called
megaelectron volts (MeV)
megaelectron volt:
unit of energy
radiation energy delivered by the machine is measured in
megaelectron volts
the energy deposited in the patient's tissue is measured in
Gray (one gray=100rads; 1 centigray [Gy]=1 rad)
rad
is a radiation-absorbed dose
To report ridiation treatment delivery services, you need to know the amount of radiation delivered and
Areas treated (single, two, three or more
Ports involved (single, three or more, tangential)
Blocks used (none, multiple, custom)
professional component
radiation treatment management codes report the_________________of radiation treatment management.
bundled into the radiation treatment management codes are:
Review of port films
Review of dosimety, dose delivery and treatment parameters
Review of patient treatment setup
Examination of patient for medical evaluaton and management
proton beam treatment delivery
proton beam utilizes particles that are positively charges with electricity.
hyperthermia
is an increase in body temperature and is used as an adjunct to radiation therapy or chemotherapy for the treatment of cancer
interstitial
within the tissues; the insertion of a probe that delivers heat directly to the treament area
external
to a depth of greater or less than 4 cm; the application to the skin of a heat source
intracavitary
inside the body; requires the insertion of a heat-producing probe into a body orifice
brachytherapy
placement of radioactive material directly into or surrounding the site of the tumor
source ; clinical Brachytherapy code
source; container holding a radioactive element that can be inserted directly into the body where it delivers the radiation dose over time,
ribbon; clinical brachytherapy code
seeds embedded on a tape; the ribbon is cut to the desired length to control the amount of radiation the patient receives
nuclear medicine
placement of radionuclides within the body and the monitoring of emissions from the radioactive elements
nuclear stress tests
radioactive material may be used during stress tests to monitor coronary artery bloodflow