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Ethnics Studies Midterm

STUDY
PLAY
Anti-Semitism
Anti-Jewish prejudice or discrimination
Bilingual education
A program designed to allow students to learn academic concepts in their native language while they learn a second language
Civil Religion
the religious dimension in American life that merges the state with sacred beliefs (ex: One nation "under God")
Ethclass
the merged ethnicity and class in a person's status / both important in determining an individual's life chances
Ethnicity paradox
the maintenance of one's ethnic ties in a way that can assist with assimilation in larger society / Facilitates full entry into the dominant culture through economic and psychological strength and positive self-esteem
Halakha
Jewish laws covering obligations and duties
Holocaust
the state-sponsored systematic persecution and annihilation of European Jewry by Nazi Germany and its collaborators
Judaization
the lessening importance of Judaism as a religion and the substitution of the cultural tradition as the tie that binds Jews
Edmunds-Tucker Act 1887
-Federal legislation provided up to 3 yrs imprisonment as punishment for the practice of polygamy - also dissolved Morman Perpetual Emigrating Fund Company and the Church of J.C. Latter-Day Saints in Utah Territory
Morrill Act 1862
forbade the practice of polygamous marriage
Respectable bigotry
Michael Lerner's term for the social acceptance of prejudice against White ethnics, when intolerance against non-white minorities is regarded as unacceptable
Rumspringa
Pennsylvania Dutch word for "running around" - the life stage among Amish teenagers when 16yrs old or older are free to experiment with mainstream customs
Symbolic ethnicity
Herbert Gan's term that describes emphasis on ethnic food and ethnically associated political issues rather than deeper ties to one's heritage
Third-Generation interest
Marcus Hansen's contention that ethnic interest and awareness increase in third generation, among the grandchildren of immigration
Yiddishkait
"Jewishness"
Words of Wisdom
Morman publication strongly prohibiting smoking, drinking alcohol, indecent language, abortion, premarital sex, extramarital sex, birth control, consumption of caffeine and drug use in general
Zionism
Traditional Jewish religious yearning to return to the biblical homeland, now used to refer to support for the state of Israel
Orientalism
the simplistic view of people and history of the Orient with no recognition of change over time or the diversity with its many cultures
Muslim Americans
those who practice Islam and live in the U.S. (monotheistic, worship Allah, guided by Koran...)
Arab Americans
the immigrants and their descendants from the countries that now comprise the Arab world
Blended identity
self-image and worldview that is a combination of religious faith, cultural background, based on nationality and current residency
Hijab
refers to a variety of garments that allow women to follow the guidelines of modest dress
Hajj
pilgrimage to Mecca to be completed at least one in a Muslim's lifetime
Jihad
struggle against the enemies of Allah, usually taken to mean one's own internal struggle
Xenophobia
the fear or hatred of strangers or foreigners
Transnationals
immigrants who sustain multiple social relationships linking their societies of origin and settlement
Sinophobes
people with a fear of anything associated with China
Remittances
(or migradollars) the monies that immigrants return to their country of origin
Refugees
people living outside their country of citizenship for fear of political or religious persecution
Naturalization Act of 1790
made all those born to U.S. citizens automatically citizens / required a set of period of residence prior to naturalization
Naturalization
conferring of citizenship on a person after birth
Nativism
beliefs and policies favoring native-born citizens over immigrants
National Origins System
Rules that used country of birth to determine whether a person could enter as an illegal alien / # of previous foreign-born immigrants and their descendants used to set quota / favored Northern Europe
Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA)
Act that granted amnesty to 1.7 million illegal immigrants who could prove had been living in U.S. for 4 yrs / made hiring illegal immigrants illegal / tried to reduce illegal immigration *(had very little actual effect)
Chinese Exclusion Act
outlawed Chinese immigration for 10 years / also explicitly denied naturalization rights to Chinese in the U.S. (not allowed to become U.S. citizens) / was the first time a particular ethnic group was restricted from immigration / [after first 10 yrs, was extended for 10 more]
Brain Drain
immigration to the U.S. of skilled workers, professionals, and technicians who are desperately needed by their home countries
Asylees
foreigners who have already entered the U.S> and now seek protection because of persecution or a well-founded fear of persecution
Anchor babies
a child born a U.S. citizen in order to facillitate immigration through family reunification under the provisions of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965
Prejudice
an attitude that consists of a set of negative beliefs, feelings, and action orientations that are associated with some identifiable group of individuals
Institutional racism
the whole body of laws, customs, and organizational practices that systematically results in the racial inequalities, regardless of how much racial prejudice is involved
Institutional sexism
the body of laws, customs, and organizational practices that systematically result in sexual inequalities, regardless of how much prejudice is involved
Scapegoat theory
a person or group blamed irrationallly for another person's or group's problems or difficulties
Glass wall
barrier to moving laterally in a business to positions that are more likely to lead to upward mobility
Glass ceiling
the barrier that blocks the promotion of a qualified worker because of gender or minority membership
Redlining
the pattern of discrimination against people trying to buy homes in minority and racially changing neighborhoods
Total discrimination
the combination of current discrimination with past discrimination created by poor schools and menial jobs
Reverse discrimination
actions that cause better-qualified white men to be passed over for women and minority men
Environmental justice
efforts to ensure that hazardous substances are controlled so that all communities receive protection regardless of race or socioeconomic cirumstances
Institutional discrimination
a denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals or groups resulting from the normal operations of society
Relative deprivation
the conscious experience of a negative discrepancy between legitimate expectations and present actualities / people deprived of what they perceive as their 'fair share'
Ethnophaulism
ethnic or racial slurs, including derisive nicknames
Ethnocentrism
the tendency to assume that one's culture and way of life are superior to all others
Discrimination
the denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals because of prejudice or for other arbitrary reasons
Contact hypothesis
an interactionist perspective stating that intergroup contact between people of equal status in noncompetitive circumstances will reduce prejudice
Normative approach
the view that prejudice is influenced by society norms and situations that encourage or discourage the tolerance of minorities (ex: it is the norm to assume "white male" in many situations - such as writing textbooks/proposing theories)
Stereotypes
unreliable, exaggerated generalizations about all members of a group that do not take individual differences into account
Social distance
tendency to approach or withdraw from a racial group
Bogardus scale
technique to measure social distance toward different racial and ethnic groups
Exploitation theory
a Marxist theory that views racial subordination in the U.S. as a manifestation of the class system inherent in capitalism
Authoritarian personality
a psychological construct of a personality type likely to be prejudice and to use others as scapegoats
Affirmative action
positive efforts to recruit subordinate group members, including women, for jobs, promotions, and educational opportunities / started by Kennedy in 1961
Minority group
a subordinate group whose members have significantly less control or power over their own lives than do the members of a dominant or majority group (very broad, anyone could consider themselves a member of one)
Myth
any collective belief that is uncritically accepted
Marginality
the status of being between two cultures at the same time, such as the status of Jewish immigrants in the U.S
Pluralism
mutual respect between the various groups in a society for one another's cultures, allowing minorities to express their own culture without experiencing prejudice or hostility
Assimilation
the process by which a subordinate individual or group takes on the characteristics of the dominant group
Melting Pot
diverse racial or ethnic groups or both, forming a new creation, a new cultural entity
Amalgamation
the process by which a dominant group and a subordinate group combine through intermarriage to form a new group
Fusion
a minority and a majority group combining to form a new group
Segregation
the physical separation of two groups, often imposed on a subordinate group by the dominant group
Genocide
the deliberate systematic killing of an entire people or nation
Racism
a doctrine that one race is superior
Colonialism
a foreign power's maintenance of political, social, economic, and cultural dominance over people for an extended period
Emigration
leaving a country to settle in another
Migration
a general term that describes any transfer of population
Stratification
a structures ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuates unequal rewards and power in a society
Racial formation
a sociohistorical process by which racial categories are created, inhibited, transformed and destroyed
Ethnic group
a group set apart from others because of its national origin or distinctive cultural patterns
5 Subordinate Group Features
1.) Social inequality, 2.) Some differentiating feature (physical or cultural), 3.) Unvoluntarily membership, 4.) Sense of unity, 5.) Majority refusal to marry into them
"race"
a mythic construction that uses obvious physical traits or morality attributes to distinguish a group of people / has no genetic isolating feature / can differ extensively within itself
4 main means of dealing with subordinate groups
1.) Segregation, 2.) Pluralism, 3.) Fusion, 4.) Assimilation
3 processes of forming a minority group
1.) migration (emigrating from one country to immigrate into another), 2.) annexation (addition of one group's land to another's territory), 3.) colonialism (one group having political, economic, and cultural dominance over another)
Factors that increase assimilation time
1.) Differences (cultural/physical) between groups are large, 2.) Majority is not receptive, 3.) Minority desires to maintain its cultural aspects/rejects mainstream, 4.) Sudden/Quick arrival of minority group, 5.) Minority group members live near one another, 6.) Homeland is easily accessible
timit bigots
people who experience prejudice thoughts, but do not act on them for fear of consequences
Reasons people don't act on prejudices
1.) Timit bigots (fear of consequences), 2.) Personally know someone from that ethnic group/Exceptions, 3.)
4 Major Theories to explain Prejudice
1.) Scapegoating Theory (but why some over others?), 2.) Authoritarian Personality Theory (but ignores sociological reasons), 3.) The Normative Approach (but ignores personality type), 4.) The Exploitation Theory (ignores personality type)
Why gender ratio imbalance of Chinese for many yrs?
Men did not return rejoin wives (wives remarried, banning of Chinese immigration, man's lack of financial success) & Legislation prohibited interracial marriages
Why German's maintined cultural attibutes?
1.) Inhabited new frontier , 2.) Large number , [U.S. instead adopted MANY German customs/features]
Why Catholic Irish immigrants shunned/mistreated in America?
1.) Were Catholic, 2.) Americans feared for jobs, 3.) Heavy-drinker reputation, 4.) Irish slums (sickness, filth) , 5.) Folklore/myths disliked, 6.) Fear of Pope taking over U.S. politics
Irish's strengths
Politics, banking businesses, bars&saloons [jobs that required personable people]
The Immigration Act of 1990
1.) Increased the # of immigrants by a lot by increasing # of visas for skilled workers, creating a safe haven for Salvadorans already in U.S., allowing more immigrants due to kinship ties , 2.) Lottery process , 3.) encourage front door entry
Hmong
must be born or married into clan / Patrilineal (strongly favor males) / Stereotypical sex roles / Spiritual healing
Muslim/Arab U.S. immigration trends
Early 1900s immigration began / halted by WWI & Nat. Origins System / 1965 began again (due to 1965 Immigration and Naturalization Act) ..increased until 9/11 / 9/11 30% decrease / past few years has risen
Islam (religion)
Virtually no chuch-state separation / follow Qur'an / fast during Ramadan / pray to Mecca 5 times per day / undertake Hajj / conservative dress code / discouraged male female contact / dietary constraints / democratic stance
Southern Italy immigrants
bad land so poor / natural disasters / battling empires so peasants / strong sense of community with immediate family / disliked education / fighting & drinking / mostly illiterate / anti-union
Northern Italy immigrants
better land so better off / Italian Renaissance in north / better land / less natural disasters / literate / union-members / looked down upon Southern Italians
Padrone
a system of recruiters, organizers and supervisors that worked with Italian work crews to provide their unskilled labor to various recipients (middle man between employer and employees) / popular with Southern Italians
Ordnung (rules to which the Amish obediently conform)
1.) No official building of worship, 2.) Pacifism, 3.) Communalism, 4.) Simplicity, 5.) Humility ("demut"), 6.) Idleness = "devil's work"
Shared values of Hasidim (NY) and Amish (PA)
Traditional gender roles + Strict clothing codes + Lack of importance of education + No desire to assimilate/rejection of mainstream U.S.
Jewish U.S. immigration trends
FIRST Sephardic Jews (from Spain/Portugal->Brazil->U.S) + SECOND Ashkenazic Jews + THIRD German Jews + FOURTH Eastern European jews + FIFTH WWI Jews
Reasons Jews losing Yiddishkait
Family no longer exclusively Jew with high birth rate \ Divided about HOW to practice Judaism \ No longer speak Yiddish or Hebrew