Terms in this set (36)
1st Battle of Bull Run (Manassas Junction), 1861
Lincoln concluded that an attack on a smaller Confederate force here might be worth a try to begin his campaign for a quick victory, hoping it would lead to the capture of Richmond. He took a small group of ill-prepared soldiers that drilled near DC, and a large amount of spectators to defeat the South. Thomas Jackson's confederate men were able to cause the Union army to retreat with reinforcements. It gave a false overconfidence to the South, and also caused the North to realize that the war would not be quick and they need much more training. It would also be a war waged for the abolitionist cause.
Thomas (Stonewall) J. Jackson
Confederate general who at the 1st Battle of Bull run was able to remain impenetrable like a stonewall, and gather reinforcements to defeat the North. His victory led to an overconfidence of the South. Stonewall was accidentally killed by his own men at Chancellorsville, Virginia, and Lee stated "I have lost my right arm."
George B. McClellan
West Pointer given command of the Union Potomac Army in 1861. A fantastic drill-sergeant, yet overly cautious, not wanting to lose any men. After a tedious period of time with no movement, Lincoln finally ordered him to attack. Initiated the Peninsula Campaign, but was was eventually defeated after the 7 Days Battles forced him to retreat. Nominated by the Democrats in 1864, but was defeated by Lincoln.
Army of the Potomac
The major Union force located near Washington. General McClellan was given control of them in 1861.
Peninsula Campaign. 1862
McClellan's tactic; a waterborne attack on Richmond which lied between the narrow peninsula formed by the James and York Rivers. After taking 1 month to capture Yorktown, his reinforcements were diverted by Lincoln to chase Stonewall Jackson out from the Shenandoah Valley. Abandoned after McClellan was driven back to seas by Lee's army.
Robert E. Lee
Main General of the Confederate Army; organized Stonewall's men to go to the Shenandoah Valley to divert Union reinforcements that would have been used to attack Richmond, to protect DC instead. His brilliant plan allowed his cavalry under "Jeb" Stuart to reconnaissance McClellan's men. He then launched a bloody counterattack, driving McClellan back to sea.
7 Days Battles, 1862
Counterattack by General Lee; The Confederates slowly drove McClellan's army back to sea. The Union forces abandoned the Peninsula Campaign and Lincoln temporarily removed McClellan as commander of the Potomac. Lee's men had suffered 20,000 deaths to the Union's 10,000 however. This caused Lincoln to begin to draft the Emancipation Proclamation, and turn to a total war strategy (Anaconda Plan). Lee ensured that the war would continue until slavery was uprooted, and the Old South was destroyed.
Doctrine of Ultimate Destination/ Continuous Voyage
The Northern Navy began to enforce their blockade on the South using high-handed practices. The would seize British ships if they were supplied with war supplies "headed" for tiny ports in Nassau or other islands. The justification came from the fact that these provision were ultimately headed for the Confederacy. London acquiesced this doctrine because British blockaders might need to use the same tactics, and would need a reference point to be respected.
Most alarming Confederate threat to the blockade; A wooden ship, renamed the Virginia, that was reinforced with iron sides to easily destroy the Union's wooden ships in the Chesapeake Bay, and threatened the entire Union navy. Intentionally destroyed to prevent it from getting into the hands of advancing Union troops.
Tiny Union Ironclad warship that on March 9, 1862, fought the Merrimack for 4 hours to a draw. "The Yankee Cheese-box on a Raft" showed that the Union could defend against ironclad ships.
2nd Battle of Bull Run, 1862
Lee began to move North, crushing the arrogant Union general John Pope. gaining confidence, he moved into Maryland, hoping to gain foreign intervention, and to try to convince the Border States to join with the South.
Battle of Antietam, 1862
Lincoln restored McClellan back to General by popular demand, and he reached a stroke of luck when he found the Confederate battle plans wrapped around 3 cigars. with this information, he was able to stop Lee in one of the bloodiest battles of the war. Militarily a draw, Lee retreated, and McClellan was removed fro not chasing after him. The most decisive battle of the Civil War; it prevented the intervention of foreign powers, which was the South's last chance to receive it. Also the log awaited victory that Lincoln need to announce his Emancipation Proclamation.
Emancipation Proclamation, 1863
Declared "forever free" the slaves in the Confederate areas still in rebellion. Bondsmen in the Border States were not affected (to avoid disunion), nor were those in specific conquered ares of the South. A dull and legalistic document that was more of a proclamation than an emancipation because were Lincoln could free the slaves, he wouldn't, and where he would free the slaves, he could not. 1/7 Southern slaves escaped to Union camps, which allowed the moral cause of abolition to strengthen in the Union and abroad. Also removed any chance of negotiated settlement. It caused many desertions from the border states, and the South claimed Lincoln was trying to stir up slave insurrections.
Thirteenth Amendment, 1865
Lincoln's proclamation ultimately predicted this doom to slavery; Constitutional amendment prohibiting all forms of slavery and involuntary servitude. Former Confederate sates were required to ratify the amendment prior to reentry into the Union.
Fort Pillow, Tennessee
Many slaves, once captured fighting for the Union army were immediately put to death as slaves in rebellion. In this notorious case, several black soldiers were massacred after they formally surrendered here. Vengeful black units cried "Remember Fort Pillow" and went into battle vowing to take no prisoners.
The general who Lincoln replaced McClellan with at Antietam. Proved his irresponsibility by launching a rash frontal attack on Lee's men at Fredricksburg, Virginia, losing more than 10,000 men in "Burnside's Slaughter-pen"
Another slaughter-pen was created when Ambrose transferred his position to aggressive officer. At Chancellorsville, he was dazed by a cannonball and badly beaten, but not crushed.
Battle of Chancellorsville, 1863
Lee daringly divided his numerically inferior force and sent Stonewall to defend the flank. His strategy worked, and was his most brilliant victory, yet dearly bought. Stonewall was accidentally killed by his own men at dusk.
George G. Meade
Union general who 3 days before the battle of Gettysburg was told to replace Hooker. Accidentally took his stand along a low ridge flanking a shallow valley near Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, and it was here that his 92,000 men fought Lee's 76,000 men, and was victorious.
Battle of Gettysburg, 1863
3 agonizing, indecisive days in a small town in Pennsylvania. The failure of the Confederate's Picket's Charge (northernmost point by the South, and the last chance for the South to win the war) Lincoln refused to let the Confederate peace mission pass through Union lines, and the battle was won by the Union. All Southern hope was lost.
Gettysburg Address, 1863
Lincoln journeyed to dedicate the cemetery in Gettysburg. This two minute address proceeded a 2 hour speech by the president of Harvard and was met with criticism for being ludicrous. Lincoln framed the war as a means to uphold the values of liberty. Although he got little attention at the time, he was speaking for the ages.
Ulysses S. Grant
Mediocre student at West Point, eventually resigned from the army and became an alcoholic. He was able to capture Fort Donelson and Fort Henry in 1862. His triumph in Tennessee was crucial, as it opened it up more strategically. He was foiled at Shiloh trying to capture the Confederate railroads, which proved there would be no quick end to the war. Lincoln resisted all demands to remove him for his drinking habits.
Joined the North with his flotilla to strike a blow to the South by seizing New Orleans.
Battle of Vicksburg, 1863
Grant's best fought campaign to attack Vicksburg. They city that was once a source of cattle and provisions from Louisiana and Texas now resulted to eating mules and rats. Port Hudson fell 5 days later and that was the last Southern bastion in Mississippi, and the spinal cord of the Confederacy was now severed. The twin victories of this and Gettysburg gave the Union control of the MI river, gaining support from the Butternut region, and also moved foreign favor to the North.
Battle of Chattanooga, 1863
Grant was transferred to Tennessee where Confederates had driven Union forces from the battle field at Chickamauga to this city, to which they lay siege. Grant won a series of engagements here including Missionary Ridge, and Lookout Mountain. The state was cleared of Confederates and thus opened for an invasion of Georgia. Grant was rewarded by becoming general in chief.
William T. Sherman
Entrusted with Georgia's conquest, he captured Atlanta in 1864, and burned it to the ground. He left his supply base and lived off the land for 250 miles before emerging at Savannah on the sea. Him and his "Blue Bellies" ransacked every town, building, and artifact through Sherman's March, which had the main intention of destroying all supplies destined for the confederate army, and weaken morale of the men on the front by waging war on their homes. Advocate of total war, and even led to some desertions in the southern army, and over-ruthless pillaging. He seized Savannah, and went into SC where the damage was more vicious. What a badass.
Salmon P. Chase
Secretary of the Treasury under Lincoln; The election of 1864 began in the middle of the war, and many factions wanted Lincoln to lose, and this man led a group of those critics. Also ran against Lincoln for the Union Party nomination in the election of 1864.
Northern Democrats who obstructed the war effort attacking Lincoln, the draft and, after 1863, emancipation. They denounced the president as the "Illinois Ape" and got considerable strength in Ohio, Indiana and Illinois.
This Ohio congressman was notorious among the Copperheads; he publicly demanded an end to the war, but went to prison for treason. He ran for governor of Ohio in Canada, but lost, and returned to America before the war ended and was not further prosecuted.
The Man Without a Country, 1863
The strange case of Vallandigham inspired Edward Everette Hale to write his moving but fictional story about Philip Nolan. Popular in the North, and helped stimulate devotion to the Union. Nolan was convicted of involvement of the 1806 Aaron Burr plot, and sentenced to exile on American warships.
Fearing defeat in the election of 1864, the Republican party was smart enough to join with the war Democrats and form this party, temporarily ending the Republican party.
Lincoln's running mate in the election of 1864 and future president. Loyal War Democrat from TN who was placed on the Union ticket to attract War Democrats, and Border States. Condemned by South and Copperheads for being too ignorant and similar to Lincoln.
Union General that marched through the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia, destroying farms, livestock, crops, and anything else in his path. Helped change the gloominess near balloting day in 1865 along with a succession of other Northern Victories.
Wilderness Campaign, 1864
Grant with more than 100,000 men struck Richmond and engaged with Lee in a series of battles in the wilderness of Virginia during the "Bloody Angle" hurricane. Grant had about 50,000 casualties, but Lee had far more. Grant ordered a frontal assault on Cold Harbor, and 7000 men were killed in minutes. The Confederates tried to negotiate, but Lincoln refused to accept anything short of Union and emancipation. The campaign took from summer until Spring of 1865. The North captured Richmond, and Lee surrendered.
Appomattox Court House, VA, 1865
Rapidly advancing Northern troops captured Richmond and cornered Lee here after a year of fighting during the Wilderness Campaign. Grant allowed generous terms of surrender.
John Wilkes Booth
A half-crazed pro-southern actor who on April 14, 1865, shot president Lincoln in Ford's Theater in the back of the head. Th president laid unconscious for the night before dying in the morning.
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