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Terms in this set (70)
Arousal is mediated by the:
reticular activating system
A 20 y/o suffers a severe closed head injury in a motor vehicle accident. He remains in a vegatative state 1 month after the accident. Which of the following is the most likely to be damaged?
Cerebral Cortex. Brain Stem reflexes remain in tact
A 16 y/o male took a recreational drugthat altered his level of arousal. PE revelaed an absent babinski sign, equal and reactive pupils, and roving eye movements. Which of the following is the most likely dx?
Metabolically induced coma
The breathing patteren that reflects respirations based primarily on CO2
A 45 y/o female presents to the ER c/o vomiting. A CT scan of the brain reveals a mass in the:
A teenage boy sustains a severe closed head injury following an ATV accident. He is in a state of deep sleep that requires vigorous stimulation to elicit eye opening. Which of the following describes his condition?
Dilated and fixed pupils can be cx by:
brain stem hypoxia
For legal purposes, brain death is defined as:
Cessation of brain function
A 10 y/o female was brought to the ER following a sudden onset of convulsions. The physicians think that she experienced an explosive, disorderly discharge of cerebral neurons referred to as:
A 30 y/o female had a seizure that started with her fingers and progressively spread up her arm and then extended to her leg. This condition is known as:
Focal motor seizure
A 20 y/o male was at the supermarket when he fell to the ground. Bystanders reported that he lost consciousness and his body tensed up then relaxed, then tensed and relaxed, several times. He most likely was experiencing a:
A peculiar sensation that immediately precedes a seizure is called a:
Neural networks basic to cognitive function include:
Memory and language networks
The cognitive disorder that results in the loss of memory of events that occurred before a head injury is:
A 65 y/o male is recently suffered a cerebral vascular accident. He is now unable to recognize and identify objects by touch because of injury to the sensory cortex. The condition is a form of:
An alcoholic checked into a rehab center. He experiences delirium, inability to concentrate, and is easily distracted. From which of the following is he most likely suffering?
Acute confusional state
Dementia is manifested by:
loss of recent and remote memory
A decrease in cerebral perfusion pressure us r/t which of the following changes?
Increase in ICP
A compensatory alteration in the diameter of cerebral blood vessels in response to increased ICP is called:
Cerebral edema is an accumulation of fluid in the:
Vasogenic edema is clinically important because:
the BBB is disrupted
A 51 y/o male is admitted to the neuro critical care unit with a severe closed head injury. All four extremities are in rigid extension, his forearm is hyperpronated, and his legs are in plantar extension. This condition is known as:
A 20 y/o male is admitted to the neuro critical care unit with a severe closed head injury. When am intraventricular catheter is inserted, the ICP is recorded at 24 mm Hg. This reading is:
higher than normal
A 15 y/o female is admitted ICU with a severe closed head injury. This dx puts her at risk for:
A 70 y/o female is being closely monitored in the neuro critical care unit for a severe closed head injury. After 48 hours, her condition begins to deteriorate. Her pupils are small and sluggish, pulse pressure is widening, and she is bradycardic. These clinical findings are evidence of what stage of intracranial HTN?
An infant is dx with non-communicating hydrocephalus. An immediate concern for this pt
Hydrocephalus in adults is most common cx by:
defective CSF reabsorption
A 16 y/o male fell off the bed of a pickup truck and hit his forehead on the road. He now has resistance to passive movement that varies proportionally with the force applied. He is most likely suffering from:
Paralysis of the lower extremities is called:
A disorder that cxs excessive movement is:
Spinal shock is characterized by:
cessation of spinal cord function below the lesion
A 40 y/o male c/o abnormal movement and progressive dysfunction of intellectual and thought processes. He is experiencing movement problems that begins in the face and arms and eventually affect the entire body. The most likely dx is:
The most severe brain injury cx by rotational acceleration is most likely to be located:
more peripheral to the brain stem
The most common type of traumatic brain injury is:
A 15 y/o male suffered diffuse brain injury after wrecking an all-terrain vehicle. He had momentary confusion and retrograde amnesia after 5 to 10 minutes. His injury could be categorized as:
The main source of bleeding in extradural (epidural) hematomas is:
A 69 y/o male with a hx of alcohol abuse presents presents to the ER after a month long episode of headaches and confusion. Based on his alcoholism, a likely cx of his neurologic sxs is:
chronic subdural hematoma
A 15 y/o male was struck by a motor vehicle and suffered a traumatic brain injury. Paramedics found him unconscious at the scene of the accident. During the ambulance ride, he regained consciousness and was able to maintain a conversation with the medical staff. Upon arrival to the hospital, he was alert and orientated. PE reveals confusion and impaired responsiveness. What is the probable nature of his brain injury based on this hx?
Extradural (epidural) hematoma
Mild concussion is characterized by:
A 39 y/o male suffers a severe brain injury when he falls off a building while working. CT scan reveals that he has a basilar skull fractures. One major concern for this pt is:
A 65 y/o female loses her balance while walking in the woods
lO-year-old male was climbing on a house and fell. He suffered a severe brain injury. His Glasglow Coma Scale was 5 initially and 7 after 1 day. He remained unconscious for 2 weeks, then was confused and suffered from anterograde amnesia. Which of the following is he most likely experiencing?
Moderate diffuse brain injury
An initial clinical manifestation associated with acute spinal cord injury is:
loss of voluntary control below the injury
The transient nature of spinal shock is directly related to which of the following mechanisms?
Accumulation of edema within the spinal cord
A I7-year-old male is brought to the emergency department for treatment of injuries received in a motor vehicle accident. A spinal cord injury is suspected. The two regions most likely to be
damaged are the:
cervical and lumbar regions
A 33-year-old male is brought to the emergency department for treatment of injuries received in a motor vehicle accident. An MRI reveals an injury of the cervical cord. Cord swelling in this region may be life threatening because:
diaphragm function may be impaired
A 15-year-old male is brought to the emergency department for treatment of injuries received in a motor vehicle accident. An MRI reveals spinal cord injury, and his body temperature fluctuates markedly. The most accurate explanation of this phenomenon is that:
His sympathetic nervous system has been damaged and thermal control disturbed
Six weeks ago a female patient suffered a T6 spinal cord injury. She then developed a blood pressure of 200/120, a severe headache, blurred vision, and bradycardia. She is likely experiencing:
20-year-old female suffered from spinal cord injury that resulted from a motor vehicle accident. She had spinal shock lasting 15 days and is now experiencing an uncompensated cardiovascular response to sympathetic stimulation. This condition may accompany:
a distended bladder or rectum
A 50-year-old male presents with low back pain.
He denies trauma and says he just woke up and it was hurting. An MRI reveals that the vertebra at L5 slid forward relative to those above and below it. This condition is called:
A 30-year-old white male recently suffered a cerebrovascular accident. Which of the following is the most likely factor that contributed to his stroke?
One risk factor for thrombotic stroke is:
Of the following groups, who are at highest risk for a cerebrovascular accident?
Blacks over 65 years of age
A 72-year-old male demonstrates left-sided weakness of upper and lower extremities. The symptoms disappear in 24 hours. He most likely experienced a(n):
A major contributing process in cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) is the development of atheromatous plaques in cerebral circulation. These most commonly form:
in cerebral arteries
A 75-year-old male experienced a lacunar stroke. This type of stroke is most often associated with:
A 25-year-old male died from a gunshot wound to the heart. Upon autopsy, abnormalities in the media of the arterial wall and degenerative changes were detected. Which of the following most likely accompanied this finding?
A 48-year-old female presents at the emergency department complaining of an acute severe headache, nausea, photophobia, and nuchal rigidity. These signs and symptoms are probably caused by:
A cause of hydrocephalus in subarachnoid hemorrhage is:
scarring of meninges and impairment of CSF resorption
A 65-year-old male suffers a subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to uncontrolled hypertension. He appears drowsy and confused with pronounced focal neurologic deficits. This condition is a grade:
A 25-year-old female presents to her physician complaining of fever, headache, nuchal rigidity, and decreased consciousness. She was previously treated for sinusitis. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
Most causes of encephalitis are:
A 15-month-old child from Pennsylvania was brought to the ER for fever, seizure activity, cranial palsies, and paralysis. Which of the following is the most likely cause?
Eastern equine encephalitis
A 23-year-old female begins having problems with tiredness, weakness, and visual changes. Her diagnosis is multiple sclerosis (MS). The pathogenic model of multiple sclerosis includes:
demyelination of nerve fibers in the CNS
The cause of multiple sclerosis (MS) seems to be an interaction between:
autoimmunity and genetic susceptibility
Classic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) presents with:
muscle weakness and atrophy
Myasthenia gravis results from:
autoimmune injury at the neuromuscular junction
Patients with myasthenia gravis often have tumors or pathologic changes in the:
The most common primary CNS tumors in adults are:
A 45-year-old male presents with seizures. An MRI reveals a meningioma most likely originating from the:
dura mater and arachnoid membrane
What does the vertebral-basilar artery supply blood to?
What happens in traumatic brain injury?
What is the structural difference between Schwann cells and Oligodendrocytes?
What stage of sleep is associated with penile erection?
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