34 terms

Constitutional Era, Constitutional Era

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Articles of Confederation
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)
Commerce
the buying and selling of goods
The Great Compromise
created two houses in Congress; one based on population (Virginia Plan) and the other gave equal representation (new Jersey Plan) to each state.
The Three Fifths Compromise
Three fifths of enslaved people were to be counted for both tax purposes and for representation
Constitutional Convention
Meeting in 1787 of the elected representatives of the thirteen original states to write the Constitution of the United States.
George Washington
Presided over the Constitutional Convention
James Madison
"Father of the Constitution". His proposals for an effective government became the Virginia Plan, which was the basis for the Constitution. He was responsible for drafting most of the language of the Constitution.
New Jersey Plan
A constitutional proposal that would have given each state one vote in a new congress
Virginia Plan
"Large state" proposal for the new constitution, calling for proportional representation in both houses of a bicameral Congress. The plan favored larger states and thus prompted smaller states to come back with their own plan for apportioning representation.
Unicameral
One-house legislature
Bicameral
A legislature consisting of two parts, or houses
Bill of Rights
Added AFTER the Constitutional Convention; created to gain support of anti-Federalists; guaranteed rights of individuals
Federalist
Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution.
Anti-Federalist
Opposed the Constitution's powerful centralized government, arguing that the Constitution gave too much political, economic, and military control. They instead advocated a decentralized governmental structure that granted most power to the states. Led by George Mason and Patrick Henry
Ratification
Formal approval
Amendment
A change in, or addition to, a constitution or law
Federalism
A system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
1st amendment
Freedom of Religion, Speech, Press, Assembly, and Petition
Constitutional Convention
meeting of representatives from 13 states, in Philadelphia, to strengthen the Articles of Confederation.
U.S. Constitution
document that establishes the laws and principles of the U.S. government
Bill of Rights
first ten amendments to the constitution (protected individual liberties of the people)
Magna Carta
signed in 1215 by King John, limiting the power of the King. Also introduced the right of a fair and speedy trial
English Bill of Rights
protected the rights of English citizens; the basis for the American Bill of Rights
John Locke
English philosopher whose ideas on government influenced our founding fathers
Virginia Plan
called for representation in Congress to be based on the state's population (favored large states)
New Jersey Plan
called for representation in Congress to be based on statehood, each state would get one vote (equal representation; favored small states)
The Great Compromise
created a two house legislature (bicameral) using both the Virginia and New Jersey Plans (House of Representatives- population; Senate-New Jersey- equal)
The 3/5 Compromise
counted each enslaved person as three-fifths of a free person for taxation and population purposes. (force the South to pay more in taxes but gave the South more votes in Congress)
Federalists
supporters of the Constitution (wanted strong federal government)
Anti-federalists
opposed the Constitution and a strong federal government (wanted a Bill of Rights to protect citizens from the government)
Federalists papers
series of essays written to defend and explain how the Constitution should work.
George Mason
founding father who was the leading
Anti-federalist fighting for a Bill of Rights
James Madison
The father of the U.S. Constitution; Federalist; organizer of the Democratic-Republican Party
Alexander Hamilton
leader of the Federalists; first Secretary of Treasury for the United States; creator of the U.S. Bank and began our Free Enterprise system

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