Conventional Cooking Methods, Professional Cooking Ch. 6

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Roast
To cook foods by surrounding them with hot, dry air, usually in an oven. Cook on a spit infront of an open fire may also be considered roasting. Usually applies to meats and poultry.
Baking
To cook foods by surrounding them with hot, dry air, usually in an oven. Usually applies to breads, pastries, vegetables, and fish.
Barbecue
To cook with dry heat by the burning of hardwood or by the hot coals of this wood. A roasting technique requiring a wood fire or wood smoke.
Broil
To cook with radiant heat from above. A rapid, high-heat cooking method used mainly for tender meats, poultry, fish, and a few vegetable items.
Grilling
Done on an open grid over a heat source, which may be charcoal, an electric element, or a gas-heated element. Cooking temperature is regulated by moving the items to hotter or cooler places on the grill.
Griddling
Done on a solid surface called a griddle, with or without small amounts of fat to prevent sticking. The temperature is adjustable and much lower (around 350°F) than on a grill
Pan-broiling
Like griddling except it is done in a sauté pan or skillet instead of in a griddle surface. Fat must be poured off as it accumulates, or the process becomes pan-frying. No liquid is added, and the pas is not covered, or else the item would steam.
Dry-heat methods
Those in which heat is transferred to the food product without moisture - that is, by hot air, hot metal, radiation, or hot fat. We usually divide dry-heat methods into two categories: without fat and with fat.
Moist-heat methods
Those in which heat is transferred to the food product by water or water-based liquids such as stock and sauces, or by steam.
Sauté
To cook quickly in a small amount of fat. High heat is required, and the procedure is most often done in a broad, flat pan called a sauté pan or sauteuse.
Pan-fry
To cook in a moderate amount of fat in a pan over a moderate heat. Similar to sautéing except more fat is used, the heat is lower, and the cooking time is longer. Used for larger pieces of food, such as chops and chicken pieces, and the items are not tossed by flipping the pan, as they often are in sautéing.
Deep-fry
To cook food submerged in hot fat.
Boil
To cook in a liquid that is bubbling rapidly and greatly agitated. Water boils at 212°F.
Simmer
To cook in a liquid that is bubbling gently at a temperature of about 185°F to 200°F.
Poach
To cook in a liquid, usually a small amount, that is hot but not actually bubbling; temperature is 160°F to 185°F.
Steam
To cook foods by exposing them directly to steam. In quantity cooking, this is usually done in special steam cookers. Steaming can also be done on a rack about boiling water.
Braise
To cook covered in a small amount of liquid, usually after preliminary browning. In almost all cases, the liquid is served with the product as a sauce. Sometimes referred to as combination cooking method because the product is first browned, using dry heat, before it is cooked with a liquid. Used for larger cuts of meat.
Browning
Not so much to cook the item as to develop color and flavor.
Stewing
To cook covered in a small amount of liquid, usually without preliminary browning. In almost all cases, the liquid is served with the product as a sauce. Used for smaller cuts of meat.
Blanching
Implies very brief cooking, either by moist-heat or dry-heat. Those commonly used are simmering or boiling (parboiling), steaming, and deep-frying (especially for potatoes).