54 terms

Professional Teacher's Exam (Florida)

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Terms in this set (...)

Bandura
4 Processes of Social Learning Theory:
"Model behavior, attention, emotions of others."
1. Attention 2. Retention
3. Reproduction 4. Motivation
Bloom
Revised Taxonomy of Cognitive Levels
1. Remember 2. Name 3. Find 4. Retrieve 5. List 6. Describe
Bloom's Taxonomy - Higher Order thinking model - 3 Learning Domains: Cognitive (mental), Affective (emotional), and Psychomotor (physical)
Albert Bruner
4 Major Aspects of instruction
"Creates new ideas or recalls past/present knowledge" "discovery learning and scaffolding"
Observational Learning
1. Predisposition to learning
2. Knowledge that is easily understood
3. Deciding best order of material presentation
4. Mechanisms to recall and rewards/punichsment
Covington
Attribution Theory
1. Ability
2. Effort (Most Important)
3. Luck
4. Difficulty of task
Dewey
"Learning Through Experience", Project based, free activity, cooperative learning, teach students how to think for themselves, social success, hands-on activities, Project based learning, arts integration activities. "Teach kids to be problem solvers by helping them think rather than focus on content. "
Students as decision makers and teachers rights to academic autonomy.
Erik Erikson
8 Psychosocial Stages and Virtues (Human Development)
0-2: Trust - Mistrust: Hope
3-5: Autonomy - Shame: Will
3-5: Initiative - Guilt: Purpose
6-12: Industry - Inferiority: Competency
12-18: Ego Identity- Role Confusion: Fidelity
18-25: Intimacy- Isolation: Love
25-45: Generativity- Stagnation: Care
45-death: Ego Integrity - Despair: Wisdom
Kohlberg
6 Stages of Moral Development over 3 levels
1. Pre-conventional
2. Conventional
3. Post-conventional
preconventional morality- before age 9, most children's morality focuses on self-interest : They obey rules either to avoid punishment or to gain concrete rewards.
Maslow
Hierarchy of Needs
(level 1) Physiological Needs, (level 2) Safety and Security, (level 3) Relationships, Love and Affection, (level 4) Self Esteem, (level 5) Self Actualization
Jean Piaget
Theory of Cognitive Development
sensory motor (0-2), pre-operational (2-7), concrete operational (7-11) formal operational (11+)
"active discovery through interaction with environment"
Cognitive Development. Schema: infants born with mental structure that organizes perceptual input and connect it to appropriate response. assimilation: incorporating new information into existing schema. accomodation: alteration of existing schema to adapt to new information. equilibration: change in thinking allows child to fit pieces of knowledge together
Skinner
Behaviorist-Proposed theory of operant conditioning with skinner box experiment, reinforcing rats behavior with rewards or punishments
Vygotsky
Zones of Proximal Development 1978: social interaction influences learning. Students learn best when teachers teach them something they don't know yet, and then provide opportunities to practice and learn with other peers and adults supporting.
Never said "scaffolding".
Watson
Behaviorism; "Little Albert Study"; aversion therapy
Classic Conditioning like Pavlov
Bloom's Three Domains of Learning
1. Cognitive: Knowledge (most basic level), Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation (highest level)

2. Affective: learning objectives concerning interests, attitudes, feelings
a. receiving phenomena
b. responding to phenomena = learner's active attention to stimuli such as acquiescence, willing responses, and feelings of satisfaction.
c. valuing
d. organization
e. characterization
3. Psychomotor: motor skills: reflex, flex, stretch, extend, tense.
a. perception
b. set
c. guided response
d. mechanism
e. complex overt response
f. adaption
g. origination
Types of Validity
1. Content
2. Criterion
3. Construct
Critical Thinking Fallacies
1. Red Herring
2. Slippery slope
3. Strawman
4. Hasty generalization?
Inductive reasoning
Specific premise to come to generalized conclusion. Prediction on observed phenomenon.
Deductive reasoning
reasoning in which a conclusion is reached by stating a general principle and then applying that principle to a specific case (The sun rises every morning; therefore, the sun will rise on Tuesday morning.)
Descartes, doubt everything and use deductive reasoning. Reasoning based on facts. Combined with empiricism to create scientific method.
Reliability measurement
0-1.0
Likert Scale
An assessment instrument consisting of a series of statements with which students indicate their degree of agreement or disagreement; created by psychologist Rensis Liker to measure attitudes.
APEAS
Measures motor performance
BEERY VMI
Measures visual perception integrated with fine motor skills.
2-100; short form 2-7 years old
Brockport
Measures fitness in youth with disabilities.
aerobic functioning, body composition, strength and endurance, flexibility/range of motion
Mastery learners
like concrete, practical, step by step learning
4 Steps of Reflective Process
1. Description
2. Analysis
3. Explanation
3. Reflection
Behaviorists say: Without "________________" desired behaviors become extinct.
Reinforcement
Behaviorists say: "____________" stops or alters behavior by imposing undesirable or unpleasant.
Examples: verbal or written warnings or phone calls are punishment.
Working memory =
active memory
the ability to actively hold information in the mind needed to do complex tasks such as reasoning, decision making, etc.
Bloom's Cognitive Domain of Learning
1. Cognitive: Knowledge (most basic level), Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation (highest level)
Bloom's Affective Domain of Learning
2. Affective: learning objectives concerning interests, attitudes, feelings
a. receiving phenomena= passive attention
b. responding to phenomena = active attention to stimuli such as acquiescence, willing responses, and feelings of satisfaction.
c. valuing= object, phenomena or info
d. organizing= different values, info, ideas, and accommodate within schema: compare, relate, elaborate
e. characterize= build abstract knowledge.
Bloom's Psychomotor Domain of Learning
3. Psychomotor: motor skills: reflex, flex, stretch, extend, tense. Learning objectives concerning endurance, strength, flexibility, agility, reaction response time, dexterity.
a. perception
b. set
c. guided response
d. mechanism
e. complex overt response
f. adaption
g. origination
Carol Gilligan
"Stages of ethical care."
Manifest Determination Review
A review that is held to determine if a direct and substantial relationship exists to the student's disability and their conduct
Due Process sub categories
1. substantive due process
2. procedural due process
Found in 5th and 14th amendments.
ELL student not reading in native language. What assists?
Bilingual Buddy: provides scaffolding for students and is best when not reading in native language.
Portfolio is example of __________________ assessment.
Authentic. Content validity is difficult to establish.
George Miller
Miller's Magic Number = 7
"Amount of information in one exposure to stimuli"
psychologist; found that short term memory has the capacity of about 7 (plus or minus 2) items
Critical Thinking attributes
1. uses logic
2. asks questions
3. analyzes assumptions
4. tolerates ambiguity

Avoids Emotional Reasoning.
Technology to support learning must support "_____________".
Schema. Don't overload the working memory.
Behaviorism definition
"how consequences of behavior affect the likelihood of that behavior being repeated. More likely to recur after positive than negative reinforcement.
Performance Assessments show?
student ability to perform tasks in real life and reflects knowledge, competence, and mastery of skills.
Nabozny v. Podlesny decision
Schools must take reasonable steps to prevent harassment based on sexual orientation. "Precursor to more severe violence."
Diagnostic Assessment used to assess what?
Student understanding or when a student is struggling. Can be taken in group setting.
Activating background knowledge of ELL allows teachers to assess if it is ___________________ or not.
relevant.
You can build on relevant knowledge or create background knowledge where none exists.
_______________ schools were founded in Lexington, Massachusetts in 1839 for teacher training.
Normal
Mission statement= present, Vision statement = ?
long term results
Pavlov
Developed classical conditioning. Response to stimulus. Students may have a painful response to failure may fear tests.
Behavioral learned theorist, Learning; Concepts: Classical conditioning, unconditioned stimulus, conditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned response; Study Basics: Began by measuring the salivary reaction of dogs. Ended with a new understanding of associational learning and the conditioned reflex
Type of memory holds info for the shortest time?
sensory memory
Retains episodes of sensory info after stimuli ends. Acts as buffer between stimuli from senses and memory capacities.
A reading skills test where student leaves off part of words- low accuracy indicates what?
Possible auditory processing problem. refer to speech and hearing for screening after re-testing.
Maslow's 7 behaviors that lead to self-actualization
1. trying new things
2. experience life like a kid
3. listen to your feelings
4. be honest
5. be prepared
6. take responsibility
7. work to identify one's defenses
Types of achievement tests
1. competency
2. diagnostic
3. special purpose
Books that were leveled to readers in 1836.
McGuffy Readers. More than 60 million sold. Upheld American values. Great influence on public education.
Able to carry out complex action patterns
complex overt response
Psychomotor Domain of Bloom's Taxonomy
1. Perception: applying sensory info to motor activity
2. Set: readiness to act
3. Guided response: ability to imitate a shown behavior.
4. Mechanism: ability to change a learned response into habitual actions.
5. complex over response: ability to carry out complex action patterns.
6. Adaptation: ability to change learned skills to meet particular events.
7. Origination: making new patterns for a given situation.
Giving the exact same test on more than one occasion scores should remain similar.
Test-Retest Reliability