44 terms

DM1 - Audio Concepts

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Terms in this set (...)

Compression Wave
sound wave
Amplitude
same as loudness
Wavelength
the distance from one crest to another
Frequency
the rate at which the waves pass a given point (number of vibrations per second)
Decibel (dB)
a common measurement of loudness
Pitch
note of a sound that we experience is determined by its wavelength or its frequency; the shorter the wavelength, the higher the frequency becomes, and the higher the pitch that we hear
Sampling Rate
refers to the number of times per second a device records a sample of the sound wave being created; the higher the sampling rate the higher the quality of the audio-Commercial CDs are recorded at 44.1 kilohertz (kHz) (44,100 samples per sec)
Sample Size
also known as audio resolution or bit depth, refers to the number of bits of data in each sample; the more bits the better the sound quality of the recording
Audio Channels
individual recordings and sound, including monaural (1 channel), stereophonic (2 channels) and surround sound (5 channels)
Cutting and pasting
cutting an audio track into clips and then pasting the clips back together
Mixer/audio board
is a device that allows you to control the input and output audio levels during recording or live performances
VU Meters
a visual representation of the output level of an audio board in real time. VU stands for Volume Unit
Track level
the volume level of an individual track
Master fader
a set of sliders on an audio board that controls the output signal level
Line level inputs
inputs that are not amplified on an audio board, typically used for devices that have a very strong signal or their own form of amplification, such as synthesizers
Equalizer
a part of the audio board that alters the output sound, often with settings for low, mid, and high frequencies
Audio gain
a set of sliders or knobs on an audio board to adjust the audio signal
Streaming
the process of transmitting audio/video files over the Internet that begin playing as the remaining data is being transferred to the user's computer, first developed by Real Audio
Compression
a process used to reduce the size of a file
Codec
(compression/decompression) software used to compress the file before transmitting and to decompress it at the receiving end, different codecs use different algorithms and are not necessarily compatible.
Transcoding
converts incompatible or obsolete data into a more suitable format, works like a translator or interpreter to adapt files so that different playback devices can be used to access the file by translating the file into a raw format, then translated to the format compatible with the user's device
Bandwidth
the rate of data transferred in a given amount of time over a network, usually measured in bits per second (bps), is affected by how many people are using it at one time
Dynamic Microphone
uses electromagnetic induction (a diaphragm, which is similar to your eardrum, inside the mic is connected to a coil that rests inside the magnetic field of a permanent magnet, when the coil moves a signal is generated then amplified), very durable, somewhat resistant to moisture, power provided by audio mixer
Condenser Microphone
type of microphone that uses changes in an electrical current to product a strong signal; requires an external power source (phantom power), and usually used in studio environments, not very durable, and are susceptible to moisture
Piezoelectric Microphone
contain ceramic or quartz crystals linked with a diaphragm or directly exposed to acoustic waves; susceptible to handling noise from the microphone itself and from the connecting cable
Lavalier Microphone
a small mic typically attached to the talent's clothing
Wireless Microphone
a microphone without a physical cable connecting it directly to the sound recording or amplifying equipment with which it is associated
Ribbon Microphone
mic that uses the velocity of air molecules passing over a thin corrugated ribbon of aluminum placed over a magnet, good sound quality but very fragile, best for studio use when shock-mounted
RCA
common audio and video connector which has been around since the 1940's and is still used in modern electronics, red typically carries the right
XLR
type of audio connection offers the best audio quality and is the choice for profession applications, typically carries an analog signal
Mini
type of audio connection typically offers a decent signal for no-professional application, but has poor audio quality, often used for modern audio players and consumer electronics, also known as TRS (tip, ring, sleeve) with the number of rings telling the user if the plug is stereo (two rings) or mono (one ring)
¼' or Phono
a type of connection used by professionals but not the preferred connection; widely used in the music industry to connect some microphone applications, connect speakers, amplifiers, and guitars; the number of rings tell how many channels the cable is capable of handling
Firewire
most common way to connect digital audio and video to a computer, has very fast data transfer rates and is often used to connect portable hard drives; Firewire is a brand name from Apple Inc. and is known internationally as IEEE 1394 High Speed Serial Bus
MP3 (MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3)
standard audio format for music on the Internet
WAV (Waveform audio)
a standard audio file format for Microsoft and IBM PCs, not as compressed as MP3
MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface)
a format for recording music from a keyboard controller; does not include actual musical notes
AIFF (Audio Interchange File Format)
a standard audio file format for Apple computers
AAC (Advanced Audio Coding)
a standard audio file format for portable devices such as phones and gaming systems; one of the audio compression formats defined by the MPEG-2 standard and boasts higher quality audio reproduction than MP3 and requires 30% less data to do so.
WMA (Windows Media Audio)
a Windows streaming audio file format, use the ".wma" file extension, can be of any size compressed to match many different connection speeds, or bandwidths
Trim
allows each individual channel (or track) on an audio board to be balanced with the others regardless of differing input levels or microphone sensitivities
Gain
volume
Fader bar
slides up and down or side to side (GB); used to adjust volume
Overmodulate
to exceed standard or prescribed audio levels; pinning VU needle
Distortion
an alteration of a sound waveform, resulting from overmodulation; often done intentionally