Professional Teacher's Exam (Florida)

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Theorist Bandura, Albert
4 Processes of Social Learning Theory:
"Model behavior, attention, emotions of others."
1. Attention 2. Retention
3. Reproduction 4. Motivation Classical and operant conditioning influence social learning. He also identifies Imitation and identification as accelerating social learning.
Theorist Bloom, Benjamin
Bloom's Taxonomy - Higher Order thinking model - 3 Learning Domains: Cognitive (mental), Affective (emotional), and Psychomotor (physical)
Theorist Bruner, Jerome
The Discovery Learning Theory is an inquiry based theory under the constructivist learning theory. Advantages of the theory include: encourages active engagement, promotes motivation, and is a tailored learning experience. Disadvantages of the theory include: cognitive overload, misconceptions, and teachers do not always detect problems. 4 Major Aspects of instruction
"Creates new ideas or recalls past/present knowledge" "discovery learning and scaffolding"
Observational Learning
1. Predisposition to learning
2. Knowledge that is easily understood
3. Deciding best order of material presentation
4. Mechanisms to recall and rewards/punishment Bruner also made recommendations on curriculum design. Cognitive development has three levels. enactive, iconic, and symbolic representation.
Theorist Covington, Martin
Attribution Theory
1. Ability
2. Effort (Most Important)
3. Luck
4. Difficulty of task
Theorist Dewey, John
"Learning Through real life experience", Project based, free activity, cooperative learning, teach students how to think for themselves, social success, hands-on activities, Project based learning, arts integration activities. "Teach kids to be problem solvers by helping them think rather than focus on content. "
Students as decision makers and teachers rights to academic autonomy. Dewey was the first theorist to advocate reflective teaching with three basis of reflective thinking. Teachers need to be responsible, open-minded, and wholeheartedly committed to teaching.
Theorist Erikson, Erik
8 Psychosocial Stages and Virtues
0- 18 mos: Trust - Mistrust: Hope
18 mos - 3: Autonomy - Shame: Will
3-5: Initiative - Guilt: Purpose
5-13: Industry - Inferiority: Competency
13-21: Ego Identity- Role Confusion: Fidelity
21-39: Intimacy- Isolation: Love
40-65: Generativity- Stagnation: Care
65-death: Ego Integrity - Despair: Wisdom
Theorist Kohlberg, Lawrence
"Cognitive Developmental Theory". The theory has three stages. 1. basic gender identity 2. gender stability 3. gender consistency. "6 Stages of Moral Development" over 3 levels
1. Pre-conventional- Stage 1. children focus on obedience and punishment. They obey so they won't be punished. Stage 2: individualism and change, children behave to avoid punishment but also to seek a reward for good behavior.
2. Conventional- Stage 3. mutual interpersonal conformity, children want to please the people who are important to them, their parents or their peers. Stage 4. Students recognize the importance of law and order.
3. Post-conventional- Stage 5. Social contract stage, students begin to understand the importance of individual rights and social contracts. Stage 6. The final stage is the principled conscience stage. In this stage, rarely reached by students, people develop ethical guiding principles for life.
Theorist Maslow, Abraham
Hierarchy of Basic and Growth Needs
(level 1) Physiological Needs, (level 2) Safety and Security, (level 3) Relationships, Love and Affection, (level 4) Self Esteem, (level 5) Self Actualization
Theorist Piaget, Jean
Theory of Cognitive Development "active discovery through interaction with environment". Did not believe that learning can occur before development. A key component in cognitive development for children is conversations with adults. Adults need to model behaviors and reveal their own complex thinking skills for students.
1. sensory motor (0-2) 2. pre-operational (2-7) 3. concrete operational (7-11): 4. formal operational (11+) Learners at the concrete operational stage use logic and inference. Variety of techniques at their disposal like transivity, classification, decentering, reversibility, seriation, and conservation. Seriation is the ability to sort items and place them in sequence by characteristics. Transitivity is when learners can recognize logical relationships between objects in serial order.

Cognitive Development. Schema: infants born with mental structure that organizes perceptual input and connects it to appropriate response. Assimilation: incorporating new information into existing schema. Accommodation: alteration of existing schema to adapt to new information. Equilibration: change in thinking allows child to fit pieces of knowledge together
Theorist Skinner, B.F.
Behaviorist-Proposed theory of operant conditioning with skinner box experiment, reinforcing rats behavior with rewards or punishments
Theorist Vygotsky, Lev
Zones of Proximal Development 1978: social interaction influences learning. Vygotsky's theory differs from that of Piaget in a number of important ways: 1: Vygotsky places more emphasis on culture affecting/shaping cognitive development - this contradicts Piaget's view of universal stages and content of development. (Vygotsky does not refer to stages in the way that Piaget does).Learning can occur before understanding. Students learn best when teachers teach them something they don't know yet, and then provide opportunities to practice and learn with other peers/adults supporting.
Never said "scaffolding". It is the difference between what a student can accomplish on his or her own and with teacher help. The Zone of Proximal Development defines the whole-language method of teaching. Vygotsky researched the impact of culture and history on learning and psychological development.
Theorist Watson, John
Behaviorism; "Little Albert Study"; aversion therapy
Classic Conditioning like Pavlov
Theory Domains: Bloom's Three Domains of Learning
1. Cognitive: Knowledge (most basic level), Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation (highest level)

2. Affective: learning objectives concerning interests, attitudes, feelings
a. receiving phenomena
b. responding to phenomena = learner's active attention to stimuli such as acquiescence, willing responses, and feelings of satisfaction.
c. valuing
d. organization
e. characterization
3. Psychomotor: motor skills: reflex, flex, stretch, extend, tense.
a. perception
b. set
c. guided response
d. mechanism
e. complex overt response
f. adaption
g. origination
Test: Types of Validity
1. Content
2. Criterion
3. Construct
Logic: Critical Thinking Fallacies
FORMAL: Invalid deductive argument. INFORMAL: 1. Faulty Generalization
2. Red Herring
Logic: Inductive reasoning
Specific premise to come to generalized conclusion. Prediction on observed phenomenon.
Logic: Deductive reasoning
reasoning in which a conclusion is reached by stating a general principle and then applying that principle to a specific case (The sun rises every morning; therefore, the sun will rise on Tuesday morning.)
Descartes, doubt everything and use deductive reasoning. Reasoning based on facts. Combined with empiricism to create scientific method.
Test: Reliability measurement
0-1.0
Test: Likert Scale
An assessment instrument consisting of a series of statements with which students indicate their degree of agreement or disagreement; created by psychologist Rensis Liker to measure attitudes.
Test APEAS
Measures motor performance (Adapted Physical Education Assessment Scale)
Test BEERY VMI
Measures visual perception integrated with fine motor skills.
2-100; short form 2-7 years old
Test Brockport
Measures fitness in youth with disabilities.
aerobic functioning, body composition, strength and endurance, flexibility/range of motion
Mastery learners
like concrete, practical, step by step learning
6 Steps of Reflective Process (DFE-ACA)
1. Description
2. Feelings Analysis
3. Evaluation
4. Analysis 5. Conclusions 6. Action plans.
Theory: Behaviorists say: Without "________________" desired behaviors become extinct.
Reinforcement
Theory: Behaviorists say: "____________" stops or alters behavior by imposing undesirable or unpleasant consequences.
Punishment. Examples: verbal or written warnings or phone calls are punishment.
Memory: Working memory =
active memory
the ability to actively hold information in the mind needed to do complex tasks such as reasoning, decision making, etc.
Theory Domains: Bloom's Cognitive Domain of Learning
6 levels: Knowledge (most basic level), Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation (highest level)
Theory Domains: Bloom's Affective Domain of Learning
2. Affective: learning objectives concerning interests, attitudes, feelings
a. receiving phenomena= passive attention
b. responding to phenomena = active attention to stimuli such as acquiescence, willing responses, and feelings of satisfaction.
c. valuing= object, phenomena or info
d. organizing= different values, info, ideas, and accommodate within schema: compare, relate, elaborate
e. characterize= build abstract knowledge.
Theory Domains: Bloom's Psychomotor Domain of Learning
3. Psychomotor: motor skills: reflex, flex, stretch, extend, tense. Learning objectives concerning endurance, strength, flexibility, agility, reaction response time, dexterity.
a. perception
b. set
c. guided response
d. mechanism
e. complex overt response
f. adaption
g. origination
Theorist Gilligan, Carol
"Stages of ethical care." Three levels of moral reasoning for women. In the first stage, a female is only interested in herself. In the second stage, she sacrifices her own interests for the sake of others. In the third stage, which most women will not reach, both interests are successfully balanced.
Admin: Manifest Determination Review
Held to determine if a direct and substantial relationship exists b/w the student's disability and conduct
Admin: Due Process sub categories
1. substantive
2. procedural

Found in 5th and 14th amendments.
ELL student not reading in native language. What assists?
Bilingual Buddy: provides scaffolding for students and is best when not reading in native language.
Test: Portfolio is example of __________________ assessment.
Authentic. Content validity is difficult to establish.
Theorist Miller, George
Miller's Magic Number = 7
"Amount of information in one exposure to stimuli"
psychologist; found that short term memory has the capacity of about 7 (plus or minus 2) items
Logic: Critical Thinking attributes
(L-Q-A-A)
1. uses logic
2. asks questions
3. analyzes assumptions
4. tolerates ambiguity

Avoids Emotional Reasoning.
Technology to support learning must support "_____________".
Schema. Don't overload the working memory.
Theory Behaviorism definition
"how consequences of behavior affect the likelihood of that behavior being repeated. More likely to recur after positive than negative reinforcement.
Test: Performance Assessments show?
student ability to perform tasks in real life and reflects knowledge, competence, and mastery of skills.
Law:
Nabozny v. Podlesny decision
Schools must take reasonable steps to prevent harassment based on sexual orientation. "Precursor to more severe violence."
Test: Diagnostic Assessment used to assess what?
Student understanding or when a student is struggling. Can be taken in group setting.
ELL: Activating background knowledge of ELL allows teachers to assess if it is ___________________ or not.
relevant.
You can build on relevant knowledge or create background knowledge where none exists.
History: _______________ schools were founded in Lexington, Massachusetts in 1839 for teacher training.
Normal
Mission statement= present, Vision statement = ?
long term results
Theorist Pavlov, Ivan
Developed classical conditioning. Response to stimulus. Students may have a painful response to failure may fear tests.
Behavioral learned theorist, Learning; Concepts: Classical conditioning, unconditioned stimulus, conditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned response; Study Basics: Began by measuring the salivary reaction of dogs. Ended with a new understanding of associational learning and the conditioned reflex
Memory that holds info for the shortest time?
sensory memory
Retains episodes of sensory info after stimuli ends. Acts as buffer between stimuli from senses and memory capacities.
Reading: A reading skills test where student leaves off part of words- low accuracy indicates what?
Possible auditory processing problem. refer to speech and hearing for screening after re-testing.
Theory: Maslow's 7 behaviors that lead to self-actualization
1. trying new things
2. experience life like a kid
3. listen to your feelings
4. be honest
5. be prepared
6. take responsibility
7. work to identify one's defenses
Test: Types of achievement tests
1. competency
2. diagnostic
3. special purpose
History: Books that were leveled to readers in 1836.
McGuffy Readers. More than 60 million sold. Upheld American values. Great influence on public education.
Theory domains: what is the ability to carry out complex action patterns? (Bloom's Psychomotor Domain)
complex overt response of Bloom's Psychomotor Domain
Theory Domains: Bloom's Psychomotor Domain
1. Perception: applying sensory info to motor activity. Learning objectives relate to kinesthetic, visual, auditory, tactile, and coordination abilities.
2. Set: readiness to act
3. Guided response: ability to imitate a shown behavior.
4. Mechanism: ability to change a learned response into habitual actions.
5. complex overt response: ability to carry out complex action patterns.
6. Adaptation: ability to change learned skills to meet particular events.
7. Origination: making new patterns for a given situation.
Test: Giving the exact same test on more than one occasion scores should remain similar.
Test-Retest Reliability
History: First formal American school 1635 and other examples of early Public Education
The Puritans formed the first formal American school in 1635 for all children. Roxbury Latin School. Religious schools, published texts.
Harvard College in 1636 (classic courses modeled on English Universities) to prepare children of the leaders of the church, community and judicial system.
- Noah Webster published a grammar book, a reader, and The American Spelling Book.
- The common school (1840-1880) was based on the principal of "social harmony" was a school available to all people.
Theory Domains: 4 Domains of childhood development.
1. Physical 2. Cognitive 3. Language and 4. Social
Curriculum: Connected knowledge curriculum
Based around real and relevant information that also incorporates developmentally appropriate practices. Working to create connected knowledge may allow a teacher to work with students with various needs and to create a more integrated learning experience across subjects.
Heterogeneous grouping
Children of varying abilities are put into groups, not sorted by age or grade. This gives students a chance to work with those they might not otherwise encounter in other types of group settings. Focus is on the average students not gifted or SPED.
Theorist Clay, Marie
Reading Recovery Whole language is the direct descendant of Marie Clay's Reading Recovery program. Based on the whole approach, it was originally developed in the 1980's in New Zealand.
Law: American with Disabilities Act (ADA) 1990
Protects individuals with physical or mental handicaps or disabilities from discrimination. This act requires schools to provide appropriate accommodations to meet the needs of disabled students. For instance, it requires facilities to provide ramps and special restrooms for wheelchair bond students.
Theory: 15 Self-Actualized Characteristics (Maslow)
Includes: perceive reality efficiently, accept themselves, spontaneous in actions, problem centered, different sense of humor, can look at life objectively, creative, resistant to enculturation, concerned about others' welfare, deeply appreciate life experiences, peak experiences, need for privacy, establishes meaningful relationships, has democratic attitudes, and has strong ethical standards.
Organization: NREA
The National Rural Education Association is an organization that promotes the interests of schools and educators in rural areas. It was first created under the Department of Rural Education in 1907. After many changes and improvements, it became the National Rural Education Association in 1968.
Law:
PARC v. Pennsylvania
Declared education a property right. As such, schools must educate all children.
Law:
Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (section 504)
A 504 plan covers a person from birth to death.
Civil rights law that prohibits discrimination against persons with disabilities by federally assisted programs or activities.
This would include discrimination in several types of hospitals, the armed services and federal prisons.
Admin: Incident Analysis
Reflection on a specific incident events as well as personal feelings from different angles to identify the main problem.
Organization: AERO
Alternative Education Resource Association (AERO) publishes newsletter "Education Revolution." The publication features the latest information regarding the field of alternative education, including articles, interviews, research studies and letters from readers.
Law: Who is covered under Individuals with Disabilities Education Act 2004?
Only children (birth to 21) with recognized disabilities which require special education services are eligible for this support.
Federal statute controls grant programs to states to support students with disabilities. Specific list of disabilities which require special education services.
Having a disability does not automatically qualify a student for assistance.
Children who do not qualify for assistance under IDEA may qualify under ADA, and services provided under ADA (with an IEP) may be covered by IDEA.
Curriculum: Antibias curriculum
Encourage thinking beyond stereotypes about groups of people and use materials without stereotypes to not reinforce such ideas.
New Taxonomy Goals (4 levels of complexity) (Marzano and Kendall, 2007)
The goals can involve declarative knowledge or procedural knowledge. Procedural knowledge is framed by what students will be able to do, what skills, processes, or strategies they will employ. Declarative knowledge is informational or what students will understand. The goals are:
Level 1: Retrieval -- recognition and recall of basic information and the execution of procedures.
Level 2: Comprehension -- identifying the critical features of knowledge; articulate and represent major ideas and supporting details
Level 3: Analysis -- reasoned extensions of knowledge; makes inferences, identifies similarities and differences etc.
Level 4: Knowledge utilization -- using new knowledge in the context of a robust (real-world) task

Key words for comprehension are: describe, explain, paraphrase and summarize. Key words for analysis are: identify (errors, problems or issues), assess, critique, diagnose, evaluate, edit, or revise.
Theorist Sternberg, Robert
Triarchic theory is an information-processing theory. He urges teachers to identify the mental processes that academic tasks require and to teach learners these processes.
Instruction: Types of differentiated instruction
1. Curriculum compacting is used to reduce the number of activities, examples, or lessons for advanced students when the teacher finds that the student understands the content and is ready to move on. 2. Curriculum chunking is breaking a unit of study into smaller chunks to provide support and feedback to the student as he/she masters each chunk. This is appropriate for students who need extra support or who are overwhelmed by too much content.
Reading: Informal Reading Inventory measures what?
Accuracy in decoding and comprehension of text at both literal and inferential levels. Timed tests only measure fluency.
Theorist Thorndike, Edward
Theory of Connectionism proposes learning is a result of a series of connections between stimuli and response. Law of readiness. Law of exercise. Law of effect. The law of readiness is key to his theory. A behaviorist who developed operant conditioning. Recognized for the puzzle box experiment and the "Law of Effect" which explains that people are more likely to choose behavior with enjoyable consequences. Skinner expanded this law with reinforcement.
3 Metacognitive Strategies and 3 types of Metacognitive knowledge
1. Combine new and former knowledge 2. Choose thinking strategies 3. Plan, monitor, and evaluate different thinking processes. Metacognitive knowledge = declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge, and conditional knowledge.
Test: Stanine scores are based on what?
A nine point standard scale with a mean of five and a standard deviation of two. Stanine scores are used to see the distribution of scores for a grade level to find patterns in student achievement over time. Standard deviation is a measure of the variability of a set of scores and the mean score. When a student is given the same test multiple times, the standard deviation of the test scores will show that student's standard error rate.
Test: Quartile scoring
Divides scores into four equal parts and can also help define student achievement over time.
Law:
Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) 1974
Federal law which governs the disclosure of educational records. Records need to be kept confidential. Only parents and those directly involved in a child's instruction are permitted to view educational records.
Theory "The Hawthorne Effect"
Refers to an experiment the "Hawthorne Effect" designed to investigate the effect of teacher expectations on student achievement. This experiment demonstrated how a teacher's perceptions can affect student progress. Bias can exist because of gender, culture, or perceived intelligence. Gender bias can be corrected when a teacher becomes sensitive to his/her own bias and corrects it in classroom practices. History. The term was coined in 1958 by Henry A. Landsberger
Organization: NASET
Natl Association of Special Ed Teachers
"The Practical Teacher"
Organization: AERA
American Educational Research Association
"The American Educational Research Journal"
Organization: NCTM
National Council of Teachers of Math
"Student Explorations in Mathematics"
for Middle and High school.
Organization: NEA
National Education Association
"Tomorrow's Teachers"
Curriculum: Committee of Ten Report 1892
standardized 8 years of elem and 4 years of high school and 4 curricula: classical, latin-scientific, modern language, english
Law:
Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) 1965
Elementary and Secondary Education Act 1965
addressed inequality of schools for educationally disadvantaged early childhood and poor kids.
Law: Equal Access Act 1984
Federally funded secondary schools provide equal access to clubs. Must be voluntary and requested by students. Teachers may not attend religious clubs.
Law: Plessy v. Ferguson year 1896
separate but equal
Law: Oregon School Case 1925
Oregon law requiring children to attend public schools was unconstitutional.
Law:
Brown v. Board of Education 1954
struck down Plessy v. Ferguson (separate but equal facilities). Equal access under the law.
Law: Northwest ordinance 1787
Federal government was able to create a public school system for all children, especially in the West.
More schools formed and subsidized to an extent by the government, and the rest by state taxes.
Schools began teaching science as well as religion, reading, and spelling.
4 stages of experiential learning cycle (Ex-Ob-Ab-Ex)
1. Experience
2. Observation/reflection
3. Abstract reconceptualization
4. Experimentation
Reading: SQ3R Method
1. Survey
2. Question 3. Read
4. Recite
5. Review
Theory that promotes active learning
Constructionist Theory
examples:
1. small groups
2. portfolios
3. cooperative learning
Theorist Gardner, Howard
8 Types of Intelligence
1. Linguistic intelligence ("word smart")
2. Logical-mathematical intelligence ("number/reasoning smart")
3. Spatial intelligence ("picture smart")
4. Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence ("body smart")
5. Musical intelligence ("music smart")
6. Interpersonal intelligence ("people smart")
7. Intrapersonal intelligence ("self smart")
8. Naturalist intelligence ("nature smart")
Memory Types
Sensory - Short Term - Long Term Memory = 1. implicit/procedural (unconscious skills/tasks) 2. explicit/declarative (conscious facts/events) = episodic (experiences) or semantic (concepts)
Misc: semantic: a network of connected ideas or relationships. Involves schema.
Theory Domains: Language Development Domain of Childhood Development
1. phonology (correct sounds)
2. semantics (correct use of words)
3. syntax (correct use of grammar)
4. thought processing (ability to link thoughts with conversation)
5. pragmatic (appropriate tone and body language)
Instruction Types
1. Independent (builds self-reliance through projects, essays, journal, reports, and HW)
2. Tiered (same content, different ability levels)
3. Differentiated (for students who need extra support or who are overwhelmed by too much content. )
4. Indirect (problem solving, inquiry, cloze,concept mapping)
5. Direct: ??????? 6. Explicit instruction is similar to direct instruction. It breaks down the instruction into explanation, demonstration, and practice. More awareness than direct instruction.
Theory: Self - Actualized stage (Maslow)
15 characteristics
7 behaviors and can be measured by "peak experiences"
Centration
Focusing on the most obvious characteristic of an item.
Kids think a nickel is worth more than a dime because it's bigger.
Cognitive Strategies manipulate material by (SuClExMaTa)
1. summarizing
2. classifying
3. extending the known to the unknown
4. making lists
5. taking notes
Test: Within one standard deviation of the mean = ?%
Two standard deviations = ?%
68%
2%
Test: Types of Assignment Distributions?
1. Range of scores
2. Item analysis ???
Mechanism is the ability to __________________________?
change a learned response into habitual actions.
Reading: Literal questions v. Evaluative questions?
Literal = recall basic info
Evaluative = readers' judgement of the text/higher level
ELL: Why is English orthography complex for ESOL?
26 letters for 41 sounds
Language Domain of Cognitive Development
Language = Communication.
Dependent on phonology, semantics, syntax, thought processing, and pragmatic abilities.
Law:
Public Law Education of the Handicapped Act 94-142 (1975)- LRE
Ensures a free and appropriate education for handicapped students ages 3 to 21.

The term "least restrictive environment" or LRE originated with this law.

Requires a school to get written permission from a parent or guardian before conducting any evaluation of a child.
2 Components of Metacognition
There are two components to metacognition: . knowledge and regulation
Organization: ILA
The International Literacy Association (ILA) is a professional association for reading specialists. It is also beneficial for teachers who specialize in the English language arts. The International Reading Association (IRA) is a different organization.
Organization: ACTFL
The American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Language specializes in foreign language teachers.
Logic:
Critical Thinking Fallacies (Informal)
Informal - non structural flaws.
1. Argument from Ignorance- true b/c not proven false.
2. Ad Hominem- attack the opponent
3. Begs the question- conclusion of the argument as a premise.
4. Equivocation- use of a term with more than one meaning.
5. False dilemma (false dichotomy, fallacy of bifurcation, black-or-white fallacy) - two alternative statements as the only possible options.
6. Fallacy of many questions- presupposes something not accepted by all the people involved.
7. Inflation of conflict - Experts of a field disagree on a certain point, so scholars know nothing, and legitimacy of their entire field is in question.
8. Ignoratio elenchi -(irrelevant conclusion) argument may be valid, but does not address the issue.
9. Mind projection fallacy- one considers the way one sees the world as the way the world really is.
10. Moralistic fallacy- inferring factual conclusions from purely evaluative premises. Inferring "is" from "ought." Inverse of naturalistic fallacy.
11.Moving the goalposts (raising the bar) - evidence to a specific claim dismissed and other (often greater) evidence demanded.
12. Onus probandi- burden of proof is on the person who makes the claim not the person who denies (or questions the claim).
13. Post hoc ergo propter hoc Latin for "after this, therefore because of this" (faulty cause/effect, coincidental correlation, correlation without causation) - X happened, then Y happened; therefore X caused Y.
14. Psychologist's fallacy - an observer presupposes the objectivity of his own perspective when analyzing a behavioral event.
15. Red herring - a speaker attempts to distract an audience by deviating from the topic at hand by introducing a separate argument the speaker believes is easier to speak to.
16. Reification (hypostatization) - a fallacy of ambiguity, when an abstraction (abstract belief or hypothetical construct) is treated as if it were a concrete, real event or physical entity. In other words, it is the error of treating as a "real thing" something that is not a real thing, but merely an idea.
17. Retrospective determinism - the argument that because some event has occurred, its occurrence must have been inevitable beforehand.
18. Shotgun argumentation - the arguer offers such a large number of arguments for their position that the opponent can't possibly respond to all of them. (See "Argument by verbosity" and "Gish Gallop", above.)
19. Special pleading - where a proponent of a position attempts to cite something as an exemption to a generally accepted rule or principle without justification.
20. Wrong direction - cause and effect are reversed.
Logic:
Critical Thinking Fallacies (Informal - Faulty Generalizations- defective induction)
Fallacy of defective induction. Conclusion from weak premise - weakly supports conclusion.
1. Accident-ignore an exception to a generalization.
2. Cherry picking (suppressed/evidence, incomplete) - act of pointing at data that seem to confirm a particular position, while ignoring a significant portion of related cases or data that may contradict.
3. False analogy - an argument by analogy in which the analogy is poorly suited.
4. Hasty generalization (inductive fallacy of insufficient statistics/sample, fallacy of the lonely fact, leaping to a conclusion, hasty induction, secundum quid, converse accident) - basing a broad conclusion on a small sample.
5. Overwhelming exception - an accurate generalization that comes with qualifications that eliminate so many cases that what remains is much less impressive than the initial statement might have led one to assume.
6. Thought-terminating cliché - a commonly used phrase, sometimes passing as folk wisdom, used to quell cognitive dissonance, conceal lack of thought-entertainment, move onto other topics etc. but in any case, end the debate with a cliche—not a point
Logic:
Critical Thinking Fallacies (Informal - Red Herrings- Fallacy of Relevance)
Red herring - irrelevant argument draws attention away from the subject of argument.

1. Ad hominem - attacking the arguer not the argument.
2. Argumentum ad populum (appeal to widespread belief, bandwagon argument, - claimed to be true or good solely because many people believe
3. Appeal to equality - where an assertion is deemed true or false based on an assumed pretense of equality.
4. Association fallacy (guilt by association) - arguing that because two things share a property they are the same.
5. Appeal to authority (argumentum ab auctoritate) - where an assertion is deemed true because of the position or authority of the person asserting it.
6. Appeal to accomplishment - where an assertion is deemed true or false based on the accomplishments of the proposer.
7. Appeal to consequences (argumentum ad consequentiam) - the conclusion is supported by a premise that asserts positive or negative consequences from some course of action in an attempt to distract from the initial discussion.
8. Appeal to emotion - where an argument is made due to the manipulation of emotions, rather than the use of valid reasoning.
9. Appeal to motive - a premise is dismissed by calling into question the motives of its proposer.
10. Appeal to novelty (argumentum novitatis/antiquitatis) - a proposal is claimed to be superior solely because it is new or modern.
11. Appeal to poverty (argumentum ad Lazarum) - supporting a conclusion because the arguer is poor (or refuting because the arguer is wealthy). (Opposite of appeal to wealth.)
12. Appeal to tradition (argumentum ad antiquitam) - a conclusion supported solely because it has long been held true.
13. Appeal to nature - wherein judgment is based solely on whether the subject of judgment is 'natural' or 'unnatural'.
14. Appeal to wealth (argumentum ad crumenam) - supporting a conclusion because the arguer is wealthy (or refuting because the arguer is poor).
15. Argument from silence (argumentum ex silentio) -conclusion based on silence or lack of contrary evidence.
16. Genetic fallacy - where a conclusion is based solely on something/someone's origin not its current meaning or context.
17. Naturalistic fallacy (is-ought fallacy, naturalistic fallacy) - claims about what ought to be on the basis of statements about what is.
18. Reductio ad Hitlerum (playing the Nazi card) - comparing an opponent or their argument to Hitler or Nazism in an attempt to associate a position with one that is universally reviled. (Godwin's law)
19. Straw man-argument based on misrepresentation of an opponent's position.
20. Tu quoque ("you too", appeal to hypocrisy, I'm rubber and you're glue) - the argument states that a certain position is false or wrong and/or should be disregarded because its proponent fails to act consistently about that position.
21. Two wrongs make a right - occurs when it is assumed that if one wrong is committed, another wrong will cancel it.
Law:
Tinker v. Des Moines ISD
The decision in Tinker v. Des Moines ISD centered on the wearing of black armbands to protest the Vietnam War. The court ruled that the bands did not disrupt the normal functioning of the school and were thus protected speech.
Law:
PASE v. Hannon
Standardized testing can be appropriate if the tests are culturally sensitive and used with other measures. This decision responded to accusations of cultural bias in testing.
Child Development Early Learning Goals (SPICE)
SPICE stands for Social, Physical, Intellectual, Communication, Emotional