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The Vascular System, Chapter 13

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inner layer (lining, or endothelium
The layer of the wall of an artery that is smooth to prevent abnormal clotting is the inner
middle layer.
The layer of the wall of an artery that helps maintain blood pressure is the
outer layer.
The layer of the wall of an artery that helps prevent rupture is the
lining, prevent abnormal clotting
Simple squamous epithelium forms the ? of an artery, and its function is to
middle, maintain BP.
Smooth muscle tissue forms the ? layer of an artery, and its function is to ?
outer, prevent artery from rupture
FTC forms the ? layer of an artery, and its function is to ?
inner layer.
In the wall of a vein, the layer that is folded into valves is the ?
BP
The outer layer of the wall of a vein is thin because ? in veins is low.
prevent back flow of blood.
The function of valves in veins is to
anastomosis
In the vascular system, an alternate pathway for blood flow is provided by vessels called an ?
organ
An arterial anastomosis provides an alternate pathway for blood to flow to an ?
heart
A venous anastomosis provides an alternate pathway for blood to flow back to the ?
simple squamous epithelial, thinness
Capillaries are made of ? tissue, and its important characteristic is its?
exchanges
Capillaries are the site of ? between the blood and tissues.
precapillary spincter, smooth muscle
The flow of blood into a capillary network is regulated by a ?, which is made of ? tissue.
diffusion
In capillaries, oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged between blood and tissues by the process of ?
filtration
In capillaries, nutrients are brought out into tissues by the process of?
osmosis
In capillaries, tissue fluid is brought back into the blood by the process of?
BP
In capillaries, the process of filtration depends on?
albumin plasma proteins
In capillaries, colloid osmotic pressure is created by the presence of ? in the blood
filtration
In capillaries, blood pressure provides the energy for the process of?
colloid osmotic
In capillaries, albumin creates? pressure, a pulling pressure.
arterioles, venules
Capillaries carry blood from ? to ?
heart, capillaries
Arteries carry blood from the ? to ?
capillaries, heart
Veins carry blood from ? to the ?
internal carotid, basilar
The circle of Willis is formed by the two ? arteries and the ? artery.
brain, anastomosis
The circle of Willis supplies the ? and is an example of an arterial ?
digestive organs, spleen, liver
In hepatic portal circulation, blood from the ? and the ? flows through the ? before returning to the heart.
portal, sinusoids
In hepatic portal circulation, veins from abdominal organs unite to form the ? vein that empties blood into the ? of the liver.
small intestine, glycogen
One purpose of portal circulation is to enable the liver to receive glucose absorbed by ? and store the excess as ?
detoxify, brain
One purpose of hepatic portal circulation is to enable the liver to receive alcohol absorbed the stomach and ? it before blood reaches the ?
old RBC, store
One purpose of portal circulation is to enable the liver to receive the iron of ? destroyed in the spleen and ? any excess
right ventricle
In pulmonary circulation, blood is pumped to the lungs by the ?
Right ventricle, left atrium
In pulmonary circulation, blood is pumped to the lungs by the ? and returns to the ? of the heart.
CO2 (carbon dioxide), O2 (oxygen)
In pulmonary capillaries, ? diffuses from blood to air, and ? diffuses from air to blood.
low, alveoli
The BP in pulmonary circulation is always ?. to prevent filtration and accumulation of fluid in the ?
placenta
In fetal circulation, exchanges between fetal blood and maternal blood take place in the ?
umbilical vein
In fetal circulation, blood flows from the placenta to the fetus through the ?
umbilical arteries
In fetal circulation, blood flows from the fetus to the placenta through the?
vein, arteries
In fetal circulation, blood in the umbilical ? vein has a high level of oxygen, and blood in the umbilical ? has a high level of carbon dioxide.
ductus venous
In fetal circulation, the vessel that takes most incoming blood to the inferior vena cava is the ?
foramen ovale
In fetal circulation, the ? permits blood to flow from the right atrium to the left atrium.
ductus arteriosus
In fetal circulation, the ? permits blood to flow from the pulmonary artery to the aorta.
pulmonary artery, aorta
In fetal circulation, the ductus arteriosus permits blood to flow from the ? to the ?
heart
Venous return is the amount of blood that is returned to the?
Smooth
Veins are able to constrict because of the ? tissue in their walls
thoracic cavity
The respiratory pump is especially important for venous return by the veins in the ?
valves
The flow of venous return is kept to one direction only the ? in the veins.
decrease
If venous return decreases, cardiac output will ?
stretch, lower
The elasticity of the large arteries permits them to ? during left ventricular systole, and thereby to ? systolic BP.
recoil (snap back), raise
The elasticity of the large arteries permits them to ? during left ventricular diastole, and thereby to ? diastolic BP.
systole, systolic
The large arteries are elastic, and are stretched by left ventricular ?, thereby lowering ? BP.
contract more forcefully
Starling's law of the heart states that when cardiac muscle fibers are stretched, they will ?
less, decrease
If venous return decreases, the heart contracts? forcefully and cardiac output ?
epinephrine
The hormone that raises blood pressure by increasing heart rate and force of contraction is ?
norepinephrine
The hormone that raises blood pressure by causing vasoconstriction throughout the body is ?
aldosterone
The hormone that raises blood pressure by increasing sodium and water reabsorption by the kidneys is
ADH
The hormone that raises BP by directly increasing the reabsorption of water by the kidneys is ?
ANP
The hormone that lowers BP by increasing the excretion of sodium and water by the kidneys is ?
filtration, water
When blood flow through the kidneys decreases, the process of ? decreases, and ? is conserved to maintain BP.
kidney, decrease
Renin is secreted by the ? when BP ?
Renin, angiotension II
When BP decreases, the kidneys secrete ?, which initiates the formation of ?
increase
To compensate for a small loss of blood, the heart rate will ?
decrease urinary output
To compensate for a small loss of blood, the kidneys will?
constrict
To compensate for a small loss of blood, the arteries will?
120/80
A normal BP is considered to be below
140/90
Hypertension is considered to be a BP that is consistently higher than?
medulla
The ? of the brain regulates the diameter of arteries and veins
medulla, vasoconstrictor, vasodilator
The ? of the brain regulates the diameter of arteries and veins and has a and a ? area
sympathetic
The nerves to the smooth muscle of all arteries and veins are ? nerves
sympathetic
When vasoconstriction is needed to raise BP, the arteries receive more ? impulses
sympathetic
When vasodilation is needed to lower BP, the arteries receive fewer ?
capillaries, time
Blood flow is slowest in ?, and this is important to permit ? for exchanges of materials.
increase, increase
During exercise, blood flow to the heart will ?, and blood flow to the skeletal muscles will ?
decrease, increase
During exercise, blood flow to the digestive tract will ?, and blood flow the the skin will ?