59 terms

Chapter 3 & 4

a condition whose symptoms include depression, anxiety, and self-destructive behavior
Criminologists who focus their attention on crime victims
While the crime is still fresh in their minds, victims may find that the police interrogation following the crime is handled callously, with innuendos or insinuations that they were somehow at fault
an extreme preoccupation with certain thoughts and compulsive performance of certain behaviors
Cycle of violence
The abuse-crime phenomenon that indicates that both boys and girls are more likely to engage in violent behavior if they were targets of physical abuse
Elder abuse
a particularly important issue because of shifts in U.S. population
Chronic victimization
Individuals who have been crime victims have a significantly higher chance of future victimization than people who have not been victims
Victim precipitation theory
some people may actually initiate the confrontation that eventually leads to injury or death
Active precipitation
occurs when victims act proactively, use threats or fighting words, or even attack first
Passive precipitation
occurs when the victim exhibits some personal characteristic that unknowingly either threatens or encourages the attacker
Lifestyle theory
crime is not a random occurrence but rather a function of the victim's lifestyle, people who drink, use drugs, and engage in crime have a much greater chance of victimization
Deviant place theory
the greater their exposure to dangerous places, the more likely people will become victims of crime and violence
Routine activities theory
There are three variables that are closely related to the routine of activities of the typical American lifestyle
Suitable targets
(Routine activities theory) such as homes containing easily salable goods
Capable guardians
(Routine activities theory) such as police, homeowners, neighbors, friends, and relatives
Motivated offenders
(Routine activities theory) such as large number of unemployed teenagers
Victim-witness assistance programs
organized on a variety of government levels and serve a variety of clients
Victim compensation
ordinarily the victim receives compensation from the state to pay for damages associated with the crime
Crisis intervention
emergency counseling for crime victims
Restitution agreements
Conditions of probation in which the offenders repay society or the victims of crime for the trouble the offenders caused
Target hardening
making one's home and business crime proof through locks, bars, alarms, and other devices
Rational choice
Thought and decision making
Marginal deterrence
if petty offenses were subject to the same punishment as more serious crimes, offenders would choose the more serious crime because the resulting punishment would be about the same
Classical criminology
The writings of Cesare Beccaria and his followers form the core of classical criminology
Cesare Beccaria
a. people choose all behavior, including criminal behavior; b. their choices are designed to bring them pleasure and reduce pain; c. criminal choices can be controlled by fear of punishment; d. the more severe, certain, and swift the punishment, the greater its ability to control criminal behavior
Reasoning criminals
evaluate the risk of apprehension, the seriousness of expected punishment, the potential value of the criminal enterprise, and their immediate need for criminal gain; their behavior is systematic and selective
offenders will react selectively to the characteristics of an individual criminal act, considers such things as the target yield, the effectiveness of police patrol, the presence of occupants and dogs, and possible escape routes
criminals are not robots who engage in unthinking, unplanned random acts of antisocial behavior
personal trait of the individual as distinct from a "crime", which is an event
Professional shoplifters who still with the intention of reselling stolen merchandise
Permeable neighborhoods
those with a greater than usual number of access streets from traffic arteries into the neighborhood
the "exhilarating, momentary integration of danger, risk, and skill" that motivates people to try a variety of dangerous criminal and noncriminal behaviors
Situational crime prevention
criminal acts will be avoided if potential targets are guarded securely, the means to commit crime are controlled, and potential offenders are carefully monitored.
Defensible space
the crime may be prevented or displaced through the use of residential architectural designs that reduce criminal opportunity
Crime discouragers
3 categories: guardians, who monitor targets (such as store security guards); handlers, who monitor potential offenders (such as parole officers and parents); and managers, who monitor places (such as homeowners and doorway attendants)
Diffusion of benefits
sometimes efforts to prevent one crime help prevent another; in other instances, crime control efforts in one locale reduce crime in another area
Sometimes crime control efforts targeting a particular locale help reduce crime in surrounding areas and population
crime is not prevented but deflected or displaced
General deterrence
crime rates are influenced and controlled by the threat and/or application of criminal punishment
Deterrence theory
if the probability of arrest, conviction, and sanctioning increases, crime rates should decline
sudden changes in police activity designed to increase the communicated threat or actual certainty of punishment
Informal sanctions
may be the most effective in highly unified areas where everyone knows one another and the crime cannot be hidden from public view
Specific deterrence
(special or particular deterrence) holds that after experiencing criminal sanctions that are swift, sure, and powerful, known criminals will never dare repeat their criminal acts
Incapacitation effect
Placing offenders behind bars during their prime crime years should lessen their lifetime opportunity, the fewer offenses they can commit during their lives
Just desert
1. Those who violate others' rights deserve to be punished
2. We should not deliberately add to human suffering; punishment makes those punished suffer
3. However, punishment may prevent more misery than it inflicts; this conclusion reestablishes the need for desert based punishment
informal sanctions
occur when significant others, such as parents, peers, neighbors, and teachers direct their disapproval toward the offender
Beccaria believed that, to deter people from committing more serious offenses, crime and punishment must be _________
repeat victimization
individuals who have been crime victims have a greater chance of further victimization
Thinking About Crime
book that James Q Wilson wrote, debunked the positivist view that crime was a function of external forces, stated that criminals lack inhibition against misconduct, and proffered the idea that wicked people truly did exist
the _______ are more likely to be victims of fraud and scams
utilitarian calculus
people choose to act after weighing the costs and benefits and determining that their actions will bring them more pleasure than pain
hot spots
areas with elevated chances of victimization due to higher concentrations of motivated offenders
law-violating behavior
occurs when an offender decides to risk breaking the law after considering both personal factors and situational factors
with regard to crime victims and their offenders, crime tends to be _______
seductions of crime
situational inducements which directly precede the commission of a crime, and draw offenders into law violations
1. Social Problems
2. stress and anger
3. prompts revenge
4. spurious association
Victimization causes:
economic opportunity
(rational choice theory) crime occurs when one feels they will profit
learning and experience
(rational choice theory) career criminals learn their limits; when to take a chance and when to be cautious
knowledge of criminal techniques
criminals learn techniques and to avoid detection