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People who dominated Southern Mesopotamia through the end of the 3rd Millennium BCE. Responsible for the creation of irrigation technology, cunieform, and religious conceptions.


an ancient wedge-shaped script used in Mesopotamia and Persia

Code of Hammurabi

the set of laws drawn up by Babylonian king Hammurabi dating to the 18th century BC, the earliest legal code known in its entirety


extended their empire and helped bring civilization to other parts of the Middle East; famous for Hammurabi's Law Code


People in northern Mesopotamia who briefly gained control of Babylon in the 1200s BC, Nineveh


What the Egyptians began to call their king,it also means "Great House" and referred to the ruler's magnificent palace.


an Egyptian concept referring to one's life force


the Egyptian concept of truth, justice, and cosmic order, represented by a goddess, often portrayed with a feather upon her head


Huge, triangular shaped burial tombs of Egyptian pharaohs built during the Old Kingdom


an ancient Egyptian city on the west bank of the Nile opposite Cairo


East African trading empire that developed south of Egypt on the Nile River


Pharaoh of Egypt around 1358 BC, youngest pharaoh, restored old gods, died at an early age


"carriers of civilization"; located on eastern Mediterranean coast; invented the alphabet which used sounds rather than symbols like cuneiform

King Minos

a king of the Minoans who legend has it owned a half-human, half-bull monster called the "Minotaur"


(Greek mythology) a mythical monster with the head of a bull and the body of a man


located on steep, rocky ridge and learned from Minoans how valuable sea trade was


ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey (circa 850 BC)


Greek city-state


a large hill in ancient Greece where city residents sought shelter and safety in times of war and met to discuss community affairs


functioned as an important social and educational center in classical Greece.


Heavily armed Greek infantry who carried long spears and fought in closely spaced rows


formation of infantry carrying overlapping shields and long spears; group of men packed together (for attack or defense)

Persian War

conflict between Persia and Greece; Persia wanted to punish Athens for helping another city- state

Peloponnesian War

a war in which Athens and its allies were defeated by the league centered on Sparta


used to promote and spread Greek culture.


Athenian reformer of the 6th century; established laws that eased the burden of debt on farmers, forbade enslavement for debt


made athenian assembly-law making body, granted some citizenship to some imms. and former slaves. set-up council of 500, introduced Ostracism


Athenian statesman whose leadership contributed to Athen's political and cultural supremacy in Greece


Athenian philosopher (ca. 470-399 B.C.E.) who shifted the emphasis of philosophical investigation from questions of natural science to ethics and human behavior. He made enemies in government by revealing the ignorance of others. (133)

Philip of Macedonia

the ruler of Macedoina, he transformed it from a primitive society into an effectively governed, agressive state. One by one he began to absorb the northern Greek poleis, until by the 340s he had made himself the master of much of the mainland, father of alex the great

Alexander the great

king of Macedon conqueror of Greece and Egypt and Persia; founder of Alexandria (356-323 BC)


Greek philosopher. A pupil of Plato, the tutor of Alexander the Great, and the author of works on logic, metaphysics, ethics, natural sciences, politics, and poetics, he profoundly influenced Western thought. In his philosophical system, which led him to criticize what he saw as Plato's metaphysical excesses, theory follows empirical observation and logic, based on the syllogism, is the essential method of rational inquiry.


a word meaning to "imitate Greeks"; Greek-speaking civilization which spread through many lands of the eastern Mediterranean and beyond following the conquests of Alexander the Great.


one of the regional dynasties that followed the death of Alexander the Great; founded in Macedonia and Greece


They controlled Persia after the death of Alexander. Their king was one of Alexander's generals.


Descendents of Macedonian officers under Alexander. Gov't largely took over the system created by Egyptian pharaohs to extract the wealth of the land, rewarding Greeks and Hellenized non-Greeks serving in the military and administration. (p. 138)

Mystery religion

Can't participate in religion until you've undergone indoctrination and ritual of admission. In early Christianity, the training was called catechism and the ritual of admission into church was baptism.


Philosophy groups which believed in all pleasures of life where evil and should be scorned


People who sought freedom from passion and harmony with nature


People who believed the proper pursuit of humankind is undisturbed withdrawal from the world


Beginning in the 700s BCE,first rulers of Roman Republic and Empire; Laid the foundation for Rome and Roman civilization


founder of Rome, suckled with his twin brother Remus by a wolf after their parents (Mars and Rhea Silvia) abandoned them; Romulus killed Remus in an argument over the building of Rome

twelve tables

Rome's first code of laws; adopted in 450 B.C.

Struggle of the orders

a great social conflict that developed between patricians and plebeians; the plebeians wanted real political representation and safeguards against patrician domination.


belonging to or characteristic of the nobility or aristocracy


of the common people of ancient Rome


In ancient Rome, an official elected by the plebeians to protect their rights.

patron-client relationship

linked plebeians with patricians, legal, social economic protection

punic wars

A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 B.C.); resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean.


City located in present-day Tunisia, founded by Phoenicians ca. 800 B.C.E. It became a major commercial center and naval power in the western Mediterranean until defeated by Rome in the third century B.C.E. (p. 107)


general who commanded the Carthaginian army in the second Punic War


a place of assembly for the people in ancient Greece


social event for Romans, bathhouses, were well decorted, could work out, soak in warm or hot bath, business sometimes conducted here, for wealthy


an oval or round structure with tiers of seats around an open space


(ancient Rome) a professional combatant or a captive who entertained the public by engaging in mortal combat


(antiquity) an open-air stadium for chariot races and gladiatorial games


Bridge-like stone structures that carry water from the hills into Roman cities


a strong hard building material composed of sand and gravel and cement and water


Roman deities that protected the house & family


shrine of the household gods


pieces of property covering tremendous areas.


slave, trained as a gladiator, who led a rebellion against the roman army for slave freedom- he was killed after two years

1st triumvirate

was present in Rome beginning at about 59 BC and lasting for three years. The three rulers were a military leader Julius Caesar, a wealthy Roman Crassus, and Pompey a popular general.

julius caesar

Roman general and dictator. He was murdered by a group of senators and his former friend Brutus who hoped to restore the normal running of the republic.

2nd triumvirate

present in Rome began in 43 BC. It was comprised of Octavian, an experienced general Marc Antony, and a powerful politician Lepidus. They ruled for ten years until their alliance ended in jealousy and violence.


Formed Second Triumvirate in 43BC with Antony and Lepidus after Caesar's death,reduced power of the Senate, began a period known as Pax Romana or Roman Peace

mark antony

general and ally of Caesar, divided the Roman world with Octavian, committed suicide with Cleopatra


She was an egyptian queen who had an affair with Marc Antony. She commits suicie with Marc Antony because Marc was defeated at Actium and Augustus was after them.

pax romana

A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.


Roman Emperor notorious for his monstrous vice and fantastic luxury (was said to have started a fire that destroyed much of Rome in 64) but the Empire remained prosperous during his rule (37-68)


ancient city southeast of Naples that was buried by a volcanic eruption from Vesuvius

mt. vesuvius

The eruptions of 512 were so severe that those inhabiting the slopes of Vesuvius were granted exemption from taxes by Theodoric the Great, the Gothic king of Italy


Roman Emperor (284-305); the last systematic persecution of Christians took place towards the end of Diocletian's reign


rule by four; the system of government established by Diocletian (284-305) in which the Roman Empire was divided into two parts, each ruled by an "Augustus" assisted by a "Caesar."


Roman emperor (r. 312-337). After reuniting the Roman Empire, he moved the capital to Constantinople and made Christianity a favored religion. (p.159)


Previously known as Byzantium, Constantine changed the name of the city and moved the capitol of the Roman Empire here from Rome.


the civilization that developed from the eastern Roman Empire following the death of the emperor Justinian (C.E. 565) until the fall of Constantinople in 1453.

byzantine empire

an empire of lands formerly part of the Roman Empire with its center at the city of Constantinople


Byzantine emperor in the 6th century A.D. who reconquered much of the territory previously ruler by Rome, initiated an ambitious building program , including Hagia Sofia, as well as a new legal code


barbarians, Goths (visigoths and ostrogoths) Vandals, Franks - go to Rome treated poorly

battle of adrianople

a Germanic group (Visigoths) defeated the roman legions


a member of the ancient Germanic people who conquered Gual and established France


The western Goths, invade Italy and Spain after the partitioning of the empire


Germanic tribe that took control of italy in the 5th century from the Visigoths and retained the Roman structure of Gov't.


One of a group of Germanic tribes who invaded and destroyed territory in the Roman empire.


invading germanic tribes in england

st. benedict

he founded a monastery in nothern ital in the 6th century and wrote a set of instructions gonverning the lives of monks that was used by monasteries and vonbents across europe.


Religious communities isolated from the rest of society, monks


the duration of a monarch's or government's power

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