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PSYC Chapter 7
Terms in this set (58)
What are the 3 stages of memory?
What is the 1st stage of memory?
What is the function of sensory memory?
It holds information long enough to be processed for basic physical characteristics.
What is the capacity of sensory memory?
Large; can hold many thousand items at once.
What is the duration of sensory memory?
Very brief retention of images, 2/3 sec for visual info & up to 5 sec for auditory info
What are the 2 types of sensory memory?
1. Iconic Memory: visual information (approx. 2-3 sec)
2. Echoic Memory: auditory info-lasts longer than 5 sec.
Who is George Sperling?
1st to research Iconic memory
What is the function of short-term memory?
Conscious processing of information- where information is actively worked on.
What is the capacity of short-term memory?
"holds magical numbers of 7 + or -2 items". This was a very famous point researched by George Miller. (phone #'s, SSN, license)
What is the duration of short-term memory?
Brief storage and can maintain unrehearsed info for about 20 second
What is chunking?
-way to increase capacity of short-term memory
-Chunk a group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit
-You recognize letters as a familiar unit from Long Term Memory
-Expands working memory load
-Helps learn series in "units"
What is the "pizza hut memory"?
-for short-term memory
-Mental or verbal repetition of information allows information to remain in working memory longer than the usual 20 seconds.
-critical for maintenance and good learning/remembering
-the more you rehearse for (exams) the better you will know/be confident of the information
What is the 3rd stage of memory?
Once information passes from sensory to working memory, it can be ________ into long-term memory.
What is the function of long-term memory?
Has an unlimited capacity that organizes and stores info for long periods of time-maybe forever.
What is encoding?
Process that controls movement from working to long-term memory storage.
What is retrieval?
process that controls flow of information from long-term to working memory to store.
What is automatic processing?
Unconscious encoding of information (ex: what did you eat for lunch today?)
What is effortful processing?
Requires attention and conscious effort & "over learning" (ex: making appropriate note cards from review information and studying them)
What are the 2 types of long-term memory?
1. Explicit/Declarative Memory- Fact information memory: memory with awareness like recalling words, definitions and concepts
2. Implicit/Nondeclarative Memory: Memory without awareness- do it without conscious effort like riding a bicycle or playing golf. The main category of I/ND memory is Procedural memory
What is E/D Memory?
memory that can be consciously recalled or declared.
What are the 2 types of Explicit memory?
1. Episodic: information about events like first kiss & last big football game.
2. Semantic: General knowledge info. Information about general facts like, Lincoln wrote the Gettysburg Address or how many tires on a car.
Long-term memory >
Explicit memory (Declarative Memory): memory with conscious recall & Implicit Memory (Nondeclarative memory): memory without conscious recall > Episodic memory: Events you have experienced & Semantic Memory: General knowledge, facts & Procedural Memory: Motor skills, actions
What is Implicit/ Nondeclarative Memory?
category of long-term memory that includes memories of different skills, operations and actions.
What is the main type of Implicit/ND memory? What are some examples?
Procedural memory; playing golf or tennis or tying shoe laces
What is forgetting? Why?
Inability to retrieve previously available information;
-retrieval>transfers info from LTM to STM
What did Hermann Ebbinghaus do?
-1st began to study forgetting by using nonsense syllables
-Nonsense syllables are 3 letter combinations that look like words but are meaningless (ROH, KUF)
-He discovered the speed and rate of memory loss~even in goldfish
Sometimes info is encoded into __________, but we can't retrieve it.
Who is Tulving and Thompson?
"retrieval failures more likely when a mismatch exists between retrieval cues and the encoding of the info you are looking for in memory"
What is the encoding specificity principle?
Value of a retrieval cue depends on how well it corresponds to the memory code.
What is TOT?
Tip of Tongue: involves the sensation of knowing that specific information is stored in long-term memory but being unable to retrieve it~ can't get the cue or something is interfering.
What is the memory distortion Loftus experiment?
Giving misleading info can cause a person to "distort" the facts; problem with eyewitness testimony!
Information never encoded in __________ can not be retrieved.
What are the interference theories?
-"memories interfering with memories"
-forgetting not cause by mere passage of time
-caused by one memory competing with or replacing another memory
-two types of interference
What are the 2 types of interference?
What is retroactive interference?
When a NEW memory interferes with remembering OLD information
________ blocks retrieval of memory ___________ prohibits the retrieval.
What is proactive interference?
-Opposite of retroactive interference
-When an OLD memory interferes with remembering NEW information
What is motivated forgetting according to Sigmund Freud?
Motivated forgetting is called repression and suppression
What is suppression?
we consciously make note to conscious forget
What is repression?
Unconscious forgetting. We keep distressing thoughts buried in the unconscious to prohibit us from feeling anxiety.
What defense mechanism does Freud and most psychologists (and you) see today in humans?
What are decay theories?
-Memories fade away or decay quickly and then gradually if unused
-time plays critical role
-ability to retrieve info declines with time after original encoding
What did Karl Lashley do?
-searched for a localized memory trace or engram
-found that maze-learning in rats was distributed throughout the brain therefore was biological
-became famous for Engram Theory
What did Richard Thompson do?
-discovered that memory for simple classically conditioned responses was localized in the cerebellum
What was Aplasia?
The sea snail was used to study how memories can change and form new memories due to classical conditioning
What is amnesia?
A severe memory loss.
What is retrograde amnesia?
Inability to remember past episodic information; common after head injury or severe trauma.
What is anterograde amnesia?
Inability to form new memories; related to hippocampus damage. Very common after many motorcycle accidents
Memory affects _____ areas of the brain in ____ different areas but primarily memories are consolidated in ___________ area and stored in _______ _______.
5; 5; hippocampal; prefrontal cortex
What 3 extra areas affect memory?
Amygdala, medial temporal lobe, and cerebellum
PTSD affects what?
What is new research focused on?
cerebellum and amygdala (one is for medications for anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia-emotions and movement memories).
What does the prefrontal cortex control?
Memory involving the sequence of events, but not the events themselves.
What does the amygdala do?
Encodes emotional aspects of memories.
What does the medial temporal lobe do?
(not visible) encodes and transfers new explicit memories to long-term memory.
What does the hippocampus do?
Encodes and transfers new explicit memories to long-term memory.
What does the cerebellum do?
Memories involving movement.
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