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Amino acids have a ______________, ______________, and _______________, all attached to the same carbon (which is the ____ carbon):
carboxylic acid, an amine, and an R-group; a
What do amino acids link together to form?
peptides and proteins
How many common R groups are there in nature?
What is a molecule with both positive charge and negative charge?
Zwitterions behave more like ___________ than neutral organics.
Zwitterions are water _____________ with ____________ melting points.
Amino acids are grouped according to their ____________________________________.
side chain properties
The side chain is attached to the _____________________.
What are the four classes of amino acids?
non polar, polar neutral(no charge), polar basic (+ charge), polar acidic(- charge)
What do nonpolar amino acids contain?
an alkyl, aromatic, or thioether (C-S-C)
What do polar neutral amino acids contain?
an OH, SH, or CONH2
Polar Acidic Amino Acids have a ___________ on the sidechain.
Polar Basic Amino Acids have a ____________, __________, or __________ on the sidechain.
-NH+, -NH2+, or -NH3+
Polar acidic amino acids have a _______________charged side chain.
Polar basic amino acids have a ____________________charged side chain.
The 'a' carbon of most amino acids is _________________.
What are naturally occurring amino acids almost always?
How many essential amino acids are there?
What makes amino acids essential?
They can't be synthesized in sufficient quantities.
Each amino acid in a peptide or protein is called a what?
How many residues are typically in peptides and proteins?
50 or fewer in peptides; thousands in proteins
Amino acids join together by an amide linkage called a _______________________.
Peptides have a vast range of ___________________ properties, including _____________, _______________, _______________, and _______________.
physiological; pain killers, toxins, sweeteners, hormones
What is the C-terminal methyl ester of aspartyl-phenylalanine: Asp-Phe-OCH3*?
Peptides may have derivatives, e.g., ________________ or _______________, on their N- or C-termini.
What do Enkephalins are opioid peptides do?
produce pain relief and euphoria
What is the pentapeptide Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Met known as?
Substituting a residue with a ________________ type of residue, e.g., a hydrophobic with another hydrophobic, often
produces a peptide with _____________ effects.
leu-enkephalin: _________________, met-enkephalin: ______________
What are endorphins?
opioid peptides that act in a similar manner to opiate alkaloids, such as morphine ; They produce pain relief and feelings of euphoria, i.e., runners high.
peptides with a common sequence (the first 5 residues are also met-enkephalin).
Amino acid substitutions usually produce peptides with _____________________________, physiological properties.
no, or totally different
Function of Oxytocin
causes uterine contractions
Function of Vasopressin
a blood pressure regulator
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