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The first step in mechanical digestion where food is broken down into smaller pieces allowing it to expose more surface area to the action of digestive enzymes:


What moistens the mouth, digests a little starch and fat, cleanses the teeth, inhibits bacterial growth, dissolves molecules so they can stimulate the taste buds, and moistens food and binds particles together to aid in swallowing?

Intrinsic Salivary Glands

The ____________________ are an indefinite number of small glands dispersed amid the other oral tissues which secrete saliva at a fairly constant rate whether we are eating or not, but in relatively small amounts moistening the mouth and inhibiting bacterial growth.

parotid gland, submandibular gland, sublingual gland

What are the three pairs of extrinsic salivary glands?


The point where the digestive and respiratory tracts intersect at the ____________.

Pharyngeal Constrictors

The circular muscles that forces food downward during swallowing:

Upper Esophageal Sphincter

The constriction of the inferior constrictor muscles of the pharyngeal constrictors which remains contracted to exclude air from the esophagus when food is not being swallowed is referred to as the:

Cardiac Orifice

Where the esophagus opens into the stomach (named for the proximity to the heart):

Lower Esophageal Sphincter

What is the physiological sphincter that briefly slows down food before it enters the stomach and also acts to prevent stomach contents from regurgitating into the esophagus, thus protecting the esophageal mucosa from the corrosive effect of the stomach acid?


Swallowing is also called:

Buccal Phase, Pharyngoesophageal Phase

What are the two phases of deglutition (swallowing)?

Buccal Phase

What phase of swallowing is under voluntary control?

Pharyngoesophageal Phase

What phase of swallowing is under involuntary control?


A wave of muscular contraction that pushes the bolus (food) ahead of it forcing it down the esophagus:

Moistens mouth and food; Digests starches and fats; cleanses teeth and Inhibits bacterial growth; dissolves molecules; binds particles

What are the functions of saliva?

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