AP European History: Chapter 28
Terms in this set (55)
the "living space" that Hitler believed Germany needed and that should be taken from the Slavs of Poland and Ukraine
the north African nation that Mussolini attacked in October 1935
the western region of Germany that was remilitarized by Hitler in March 1936 in violation of the Treaty of Versailles
Policy of Appeasement
the policy of negotiating with aggressors and making concessions in order to avoid war; the western powers, especially France and Britain, pursued this policy in response to Hitler's aggression
Spanish Civil War
the war that provided a training ground for World War II; it involved the republican government versus General Francisco Franco's fascists, who eventually won
the German word for the union of Austria and Germany
the western region of Czechoslovakia that contained about 3.5 million ethnic Germans and that Hitler annexed in 1938
the city at which a conference took place in September 1938 in order to resolve the crisis over the Sudentenland; the nations involved (Germany, Italy, France, and Britain) agreed to allow Hitler to annex the Sudentenland in return for Hitler's promise not to invade the rest of Czechoslovakia
the agreement made between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in August 1939 that guaranteed that neither nation would attack the other; the secret provisions of the agreement stated that both nations would invade and divide Poland
the new German military stratgey of "lightning warfare" that included fast-moving, massed armored tanks supported by airpower
the prime minister of Britain from 1940-1945; he was an early and forceful critic of Hitler, the Nazis, and the policy of appeasement
the name for the series of battles that mostly took place in the skies above the Britain between the German air force (Luftwaffe) and the British air force (Royal Air Force- RAF) between July and October 1940
the military code name for the German invasion of the Soviet Union, which began in June 1941
Hitler's name for his planned European empire; the first two German empires were those of Charlemagne in the 9th century and Bismarck in the 19th century
the US naval base in Hawaii that was attacked by Japan on December 7, 1941, which brought the US into World War II
Battle of Stalingrad
the battle that took place in the Soviet Union against Germany from August 1942 to February 1943; each side lost more than a million soldiers, but the Soviets eventually won the battle, which is seen as the turning point on the eastern front, as the Soviets pushed Germany westward until the end of the war
the name for allied invasion of Europe that took place on June 6, 1944, on the coast of Normandy, France
The Battle of the Bulge
the German counteroffensive in Belgium and Luxembourg in December 1944; it was the last gasp for the Germans, and afterward, German resistance crumbled
the American military strategy in the Pacific in which they did not try to recapture every island that the Japanese held, but instead selected major bases and strategic sites along the enemy supply line and made their way toward Japan itself
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
the two Japanese cities that were bombed in the summer of 1945 by the new atomic weapons that the US had developed
the German word for "subhumans"; or beasts who need not be treated as people; Hitler used this term to refer to Jews, Slavs, and other "inferior" groups of people
the name for the mass murder of around 6 million European Jews by Hitler and the Nazis
the name for the French dictatorial regime that was set up by Marshal Petain in southern France that collaborated with the Germans during World War II
Great Patriotic War
the Soviet name for World War II
the broad set of principles agreed to by US President Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Churchill in August 1941; the principles included no front in France the next summer, and Stalin agreed to fight Japan when Germany was defeated
the Iranian city that was the site of a meeting for the Big Three (the USSR, Britain, and the US) in 1943; the Western powers agreed to open a second front in France the next summer, and Stalin agreed to fight Japan when Germany was defeated
the Crimean city that was the site of a meeting of the Big Three in February 1945; the three powers agreed to create the United Nations organization after the war was over
the Berlin suburb that was the site of a meeting of the Big Three in July 1945; Russia's western frontier was moved far into what had been Poland, and in effect, Poland was moved about a hundred miles west at the expense of Germany; the Allies agreed to divide Germany into occupation zones
Clement Atlee, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Joseph Stalin
Who comprised the Big Three by the time of the Potsdam summit in July 1945?
The bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
The surrender of the Japanese government in 1945 was forced by what?
fast-moving, massed armored columns supported by air power
A blitzkrieg is...
Neville Chamberlain's policy of appeasement
Hitler's success in Czechoslovakia was facilitated by...
The Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor
The United States entered into World War II as result of:
brought Italy and Germany together into the Rome-Berlin Axis Pact of 1936
The Spanish Civil War...
was an amphibious assault that led to the liberation of France
collaborated with the Germans to preserve as much autonomy as possible
The French Vichy government...
an agreement between Churchill and Roosevelt that invoked the spirit of Wilson's Fourteen Points
The Atlantic Charter was...
divided Poland between the two powers
The secret provision of the Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact...
The turning point in the Germans' Russian campaign came at the Battle of...
forced the Germans to divert troops from the invasion of Russia
Italian setbacks in North Africa and Greece:
The assumptions that Germany had real grievances and that Hitler's goals were limited underlay the policy of:
the union of Germany and Austria
The Anschluss was:
imposed weak sanctions that exempted oil from the embargo
In response to Italy's invasion of Ethiopia, the League of Nations:
most of my short answers are wrong don't copy them if ur looking for right answers
these r literally all wrong
Hitler's ideology was centered around racial theory. He wished to strengthen the "volk", or a racial group of ethnically German people. This involved the removal of inferior groups, such as the Jews. He also wished to extend the boundaries of the old Habsburg Empire, especially Austria. He believed that Germany needed more Lebensraum, or "living empire" by taking land from Slavs and making them slaves.
What were Hitler's foreign policy goals?
The policy of appeasement that Britain and France adopted in the 1930s set out to negotiate with Germany as they both believed that the Germans had real grievances. In addition, they supported Hitler's goals. All western powers were legitimately dreading the thought of another World War. Consequently, immediately following World War I, France built a long line of defense across the new border of Germany. This was known as the Maginot Line.
Why did Britain and France adopt a policy of appeasement in the 1930s?
Chamberlain and France prepared for war as Chamberlain returned to England with the Munich Agreement. The appeasement of Hitler was an utter failure and allowed Poland and Hungary to tear apart Czechoslovakia. The Slovaks demanded their own independent state.France and Britain attacked Germany from the west, but Hitler ended up occupying Prague. On March 31, Chamberlain announced a Franco-British guarantee of Polish independence while Hitler was expecting to fight a war with Poland. The French and British really had no effective way to help the Poles because of the Maginot Line.
In what specific instances did Britain and France appease aggressors?
Germany and France signed an armistice in 1940 that allowed Germany to occupy more than half of France, including the English Channel and Atlantic coast. Marshal Petain set up a dictatorial regime called the Vichy government as Germans began to transport French Jews to extermination and labor camps in east Europe. On October 21, 1945, France was forced to adopt a new constitution.
How was Hitler able to defeat France so easily in 1940?
Winston Churchill primarily led Britain through World War II. He launched a campaign to gather scrap metal and extended factory hours. Women began to join the workforce and unemployment practically disappeared. During the blitz air wars, British people moved to the countryside. Shockingly, the government paid for food, medication, issued gas masks to urban dwellers, and used propaganda to help encourage the resistance of the Nazis. This is why the air wars ultimately failed.
Why did the air war against Britain fail?
Hitler's war on the Soviet Union was surprising, as they had made a pact to divide Poland. Approximately 16 million Soviets died and Hitler's German soldiers seized grain, mineral resources, and oil. Hitler invaded the Soviet Union in order to strengthen the Western powers' sense of needing to attack a common enemy.
Why did Hitler invade the Soviet Union?
US intervention in the war brought islands and Japan into the war. When Japan dropped a bomb on Pearl Harbor, the US and Britain declared a war on Japan. Subsequently, the US developed the nuclear bomb which they dropped on thousands of Japanese civilians in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. US intervention was important because it made the war truly global, rather than a fight between the great western European powers and the eastern European countries.
How important was American intervention in the war?
The goal of the Japanese bombings was for the US to destroy the Japanese naval force. This would allow the US to more easily "island hop" and therefore conquer more territory without a large enemy. In addition, these bombings would destroy Japanese industry. The bombings led to Japan's surrender on August 14, 1945 and a peace agreement on Tokyo Bay on September 2, 1945.
Why did the United States drop atomic bombs on Japan?
On the domestic front in Britain, blitz air wars actually improved the lives of many average British people. While there were definite food and clothing shortages, unemployment practically disappeared. Meanwhile, French Jews were being shipped off to east Europe, Germany was occupying, and the Vichy government was facing resistance from the "Free France" movement. Germany was suffering defeats against the Soviet Union. Germany and France were not in peace on their domestic fronts, but Britain used propaganda and planned tactics to stay calm on their domestic front.
How did experiences on the domestic front in Britain differ from those in Germany and France?
The Soviet Union suffered more than any other nation in the "Great Patriotic War" with over 16 million casualties. Soviet troops were taken as prisoners. Cities and industrial factories were destroyed. Germans took grain, mineral resources, and oil from the Soviet Union. The Soviet government began to stress patriotism rather than Marxist ideas. In addition, they took away radios from citizens and just made broadcasts on loudspeakers in cities.
What impact did "The Great Patriotic War" have on the people of the Soviet Union?
Hitler's "final solution" to the Jewish question was to create a "judenrein" Europe (Jewish free). He sent European Jews to concentration camps in east Europe where they would be forced to work or just be sent straight to death. Jews were burned in ovens and put in unspeakable conditions. Over 6 million Jews died and when the camps were finally liberated, the world's Jewish population sat at just about 1 million.
What was Hitler's "final solution" to the Jewish question?
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