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PSYCH 110 TEST 3 Christie Charles
Terms in this set (128)
Social psychologists refer to the mental process of inferring the causes of people's behavior, including one's own, as:
Attribution; Explaining behavior
The ______ error, involves the tendency to attribute the behavior of others to internal, personal characteristics while ignoring or underestimating the effects of external, situational factors.
Fundamental Attribution Error
The theory that emphasizes the description and measurement of specific personality differences in behavioral predispositions among individuals is called the:
Sigmund Freud's theory of personality, which emphasized the importance of unconscious processes and the influence of early childhood experiences, is called the ______ perspective.
At her therapy session, Keisha is asked to spontaneously report all of the thoughts, feelings, and mental images as they come into her mind. This technique is commonly used in psychoanalysis and is known as:
The most fundamental dimensions of personality are called:
How many source traits did Raymond Cattell propose?
Fraser loves wearing sandals or thongs and hates wearing shoes. However, when he went out to dinner with his girlfriend's family he wore shoes because he did not want to evoke their disapproval. Fraser's behavior illustrates the importance of:
The affective component of an attitude is reflected in:
feelings or emotions about topic
As you are helping your newlywed friends move into their new home, you hear them arguing as they try to edge the king-sized bed frame through the bedroom doorway. The frame gets jammed and you automatically attribute the jam to the couple "being poor communicators" rather than attributing the failure to get the frame through the doorway to the possibility that it might be too big for the doorway. This is an example of:
the fundamental attribution of error
Sally did not do well on her last math test. If her fifth-grade teacher concludes that Sally did poorly because she is NOT motivated to do well in school, the teacher may be committing:
the fundamental attribution error
Also known as ______ traits, these personality characteristics or attributes can easily be inferred from observable behavior.
A ______ is a type of personality test in which a person interprets an ambiguous image, in the process of which the tester can assess unconscious motives, conflicts, psychological defenses, and personality traits.
Yoko was late for work because traffic was particularly heavy. When she arrived at the office, she apologized to her boss, insisting that it was her fault for being late—if she had been less lazy, it wouldn't have happened. According to the Culture and Human Behavior box titled "Explaining Failure and Murder: Culture and Attributional Biases," blaming an accidental occurrence on an internal, personal disposition rather than on situational factors is called the:
______ was the German-born British psychologist who developed a trait theory of personality that identified the three basic dimensions of personality as:
Hans Eysenck; introversion, neuroticism, psychotism
Jake lost his job two months ago when his company downsized its operations; and, despite all his efforts, he has not yet found another job. One of his neighbors stated that Jake is just like most unemployed people—irresponsible, unmotivated, and basically lazy. The neighbor has committed:
fundamental attribution error
When Allison landed a big contract for her firm, she accepted the credit for her hard work and smart "wheeling and dealing." When she failed to get the contract in another situation, she blamed the loss on the sneaky and dishonest tactics of the competition. Her attitudes illustrate:
The term ______ was used by Carl Rogers to refer to the sense of being loved and valued by other people, especially one's parents.
______ is the assumption that the world is fair and that therefore people get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
Raffi is shown a series of cards with ambiguous scenes and told to make up a story about each one including descriptions of the characters' feelings and motives. Raffi has been given the:
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
14. When Martha walked down a dark alley one night in a part of town that she knew was dangerous, she was mugged, but fortunately not otherwise harmed. When she told a friend of hers what happened, his first thought was that "she should have known not to walk there at night." Martha's friend is in a sense putting the responsibility for her misfortune on her, despite the fact that she was a victim of a mugging. Her friend was using the psychological process known as:
blaming the victim
15. Social cognitive theory embraces the idea that it is a person's ______ that represent(s) the person's cognitive skills, abilities, and attitudes.
21. During a discussion on fast food and fast-food outlets, Mark stated, "Fast food is great. I just love southern fried chicken, fries, coleslaw, and milkshakes." This statement represents the ______ component of Michael's positive attitude toward fast-food.
17. Dr. Sharma stresses the importance of identifying, measuring, and describing individual differences in terms of various personality characteristics. His views are MOST representative of the ______ perspective on personality.
18. The tendency to adjust one's behavior, attitudes, or beliefs to group norms in response to real or imagined group pressure is called:
19. In contrast to Freud's pessimistic view of people as being motivated by sexual and destructive instincts, the ______ theory of personality generally emphasizes the inherent goodness of people, human potential, self-actualization, the self-concept, and healthy personality development
20. The cognitive component of an attitude involves:
thoughts and conclusions about a given topic or situation
22. When a person attributes the successful outcomes of his behavior to internal causes and unsuccessful outcomes to external, situational causes, the person most likely has an explanatory style known as:
23. The ideas about basic anxiety and womb envy proposed by German-born American psychoanalyst ______ also emphasized the role of social relationships and culture in personality.
24. According to social psychologists, the three components of an attitude typically are which of the following?
cognitive, affective, behavior
25. Carl Rogers is MOST famous for which of the following?
becoming a fully functioning person
26. The Culture and Human Behavior box titled "Explaining Failure and Murder: Culture and Attributional Biases," discusses a type of explanatory style more often found in collectivistic cultures that is known as the ______ bias. This style involves blaming our failures on internal, personal factors and attributing our successes to external, situational factors.
27. The ______ is what Freud referred to as the partly conscious self-evaluative, moralistic component of personality that is formed through the internalization of parental and societal moral standards.
28. Mary, a sophomore in college, did very well on her chemistry midterm exam. Afterward she believed the good grade was due to her being good at chemistry and studying very hard. However, when she found out how poorly she did on her final chemistry exam, she went to her professor to talk to him about her belief that the test was unfair, badly written and too difficult. Mary is likely using what social psychologists call the ______ bias, in which she attributed her midterm success to something internal, and her failure on the final to something external.
29. The tendency to attribute our own behavior to external, situational characteristics, while ignoring or underestimating the effects of internal, personal factors is called:
30. The life instinct is referred to as:
31. The social category called a stereotype refers to:
a cluster of characteristics associated with all members of a specific group of people
32. Humanistic psychology focuses on:
emphasizes free will, self-awareness, and psychological growth.
33. The tendency to overestimate one's ability to have foreseen or predicted the outcome of an event is called:
34. During the ______ stage of psychosexual development, the genitals are the primary focus and the child derives pleasurable sensations through sexual curiosity, masturbation, and sexual attraction toward the opposite-sex parent.
35. ______ was the Swiss psychiatrist who developed his own psychoanalytic theory of personality. His theory stressed a striving toward psychological harmony and included the key ideas of the collective unconscious and archetypes.
36. ______ is the negative attitude toward people who belong to a specific social group.
37. Mental images of universal human instincts, themes, and preoccupations are called:
38. All members of the MacGregor household are enthusiastic supporters of the new community recycling program. They consistently sort their garbage by placing paper, plastic, glass, and aluminum in their respective bins. The MacGregors' actions illustrate the ______ component of attitudes.
39. The behavioral component of an attitude is most reflected through:
your actions regarding the topic or situation
40. ______ used the term self-efficacy to describe the degree to which we are subjectively convinced of our own effectiveness and capabilities in meeting the demands of a particular situation.
41. The term ______ is the term used by Bandura to describe the degree to which a person is subjectively convinced of his or her own effectiveness and capabilities in meeting the demands of a particular situation.
42. The unpleasant state of psychological tension or arousal that occurs in a person when there is an inconsistency between two thoughts or perceptions, is called:
43. Carl Rogers suggested that the ______ is the innate drive to maintain and enhance the human organism.
45. According to Freud, the notion that a little boy feels affection for his mother and hostility and jealousy toward his father as well as experiencing castration anxiety, is known as the:
the oedipus complex
46. The teaching technique known as the ______ stresses a cooperative, rather than competitive, learning situation.
47. The actualizing tendency and the self-concept are to ______ as reciprocal determinism and self-efficacy are to ______.
fully functioning person; social cognitive
48. Jai could be described as a person who has a flexible, constantly evolving self-concept and is realistic, open to new experiences, and capable of changing in response to new experiences. Carl Rogers would characterize Jai as a(n):
fully functioning person
50. ______ was the American social psychologist who is best known for his pioneering studies of conformity.
51. According to Freud, the id is ruled by the ______, which is the relentless drive toward immediate satisfaction of the instinctual urges.
52. Greg, a new faculty member, is on the college committee concerned with student evaluation. He disagrees with the proposal to institute a college-wide percentage system for grading, but the other five members have already stated that they are in favor of the proposal. Greg decides that it would be in his best interests to go along with his colleagues and not risk antagonizing them, so he votes in favor of the proposed policy. This example best illustrates:
56. ______ is the American psychologist best known for the Robbers' Cave experiments and for his study of prejudice, conflict resolution, and group processes.
57. The theory of personality that represents an optimistic look at human nature, emphasizing the self and fulfillment of a person's unique potential, is the:
58. Fraser loves wearing sandals or thongs and hates wearing shoes. However, when he went out to dinner with his girlfriend's family he wore shoes because he did not want to evoke their disapproval. Fraser's behavior illustrates the importance of:
59. Professor Kelly's research involves describing and explaining similarities and differences in people's patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving. Professor Kelly likely studies ______ theory.
60. A relatively stable, enduring predisposition to behave in a certain way is called:
61. Known as ______, this involves the tendency to see members of out-groups as very similar to one another.
out-group homogeneity effect
62. According to Albert Bandura, all of us have a set of cognitive skills, abilities, and attitudes that guide how we perceive, evaluate, and control our behavior in different situations. Bandura referred to this as:
63. Kyle is in sixth grade, and like most children in his school, he believes that his school is better than all the other schools in town. Kyle's belief illustrates:
64. Which of the following theories of personality stresses the influence of unconscious mental processes, the importance of sexual and aggressive instincts, and the enduring effects of early childhood experience on personality?
65. The sex drive is also referred to as:
66. Mrs. Torre sends her children to a private elementary school and has made friends with several fellow parents. Mrs. Torre's neighbor, Mrs. Klucik, on the other hand, home-schools her children. Mrs. Torre does not take part in the activities and group events that Mrs. Klucik does as a home-schooling mother. Social psychologists would consider Mrs. Torre to be part of the ______ of the elementary school parents, and part of the ______ of the home-school parents.
67. Seven-year old Sean prefers to play with his male friends and does not like playing with girls very much. Sean is probably in the ______ stage of psychosexual development.
68. Joy says, "I think our reading group reads more sophisticated literature than Jenna's group. Frankly, between you and me, it's because most of us have a graduate degree." In using the word "we," Joy is referring to her:
69. According to ______, human functioning is caused by the interaction of behavioral, cognitive, and environmental factors, a process that he called reciprocal determinism.
70. The term that describes human functioning as being caused by the interaction of behavioral, cognitive, and environmental factors is:
71. Behavior motivated by the desire to gain social acceptance and approval is described by the text as:
normative social influence
72. The death instinct, which Freud called ______, is often manifested in aggressive, destructive, and self-destructive actions.
73. Male is to _____ aggression as female is to _____ aggression.
74. Liliana thinks that people her parents' age are old-fashioned, critical, intolerant, and unconcerned about important social issues. Liliana is assuming that people in a particular age category have certain characteristics, even though these qualities may be unrelated to the objective criteria that define this particular age group. This example illustrates:
75. The type of person who directs his energies outward toward the environment and other people would most likely be considered high on the ______ dimension of Eysenck's theory.
76. When Inge was first elected to the student finance committee, she was asked to make a decision on some important financial matter with which she was not familiar. All the other members of the committee stated that they were going to vote against the proposal. Inge voted with the group because she assumed that they must have the correct information and more background information on it. This example illustrates:
Informational social influence
77. Eysenck's theory includes a personality dimension known as ______, in which the person directs his or her energies inward toward self-focused experiences.
78. Which type of learning is associated with aggressive behavior?
79. Terry's view of parents who have many children has always been that they are selfish or irresponsible. Terry then moves next door to a woman who has 8 children. Terry's view of parents with many children is challenged when she learns that her neighbors, despite their number of children, are very generous, responsible, and caring people. Terry's former belief about what families with lots of children SHOULD be like is a type of social category known as:
80. The ______ is the unconscious, irrational component of personality that seeks immediate satisfaction of instinctual urges and drives.
81. Known as ______, this is the tendency to expend less effort on a task when it is a group effort.
82. Which statement BEST reflects the relationship between culture and conformity?
conformity is higher in collectivistic cultures than in individualistic cultures
83. The definition of ______ involves the performance of an action in response to the direct orders of an authority or person of higher status
84. Freud referred to the ______ as the partly conscious rational component of personality that regulates thoughts and behavior and is most in touch with the demands of the external world.
85. The reason that marathon runners will often clock a better time on the actual race day than they did in their timed practice runs is considered to be related to the support, clapping, and cheering of those present on the day of the race but not there during practice. This enhanced performance can be attributed to a phenomenon known as:
86. Social facilitation is:
the tendency for the presence of other people to enhance individual performance
87. In Freud's psychoanalytic theory, the totality of the thoughts, feelings, wishes, and drives that, he believed, operated below the level of awareness that are difficult to bring to conscious awareness is called:
88. ______ is the concept that involves a reduction in self-awareness and diminished inhibitions occurring when a person is part of a group whose members feel anonymous.
89. During cross-examination, a witness repeatedly offers his opinion in answer to the lawyer's questions, so the judge finally orders him to confine his answers to a simple "yes" or "no" answer. After the judge's rebuke, the witness stops offering his opinions. This response of the witness illustrates:
90. Dr. Markowitz studies the effects of heredity on behavior. One of his areas of research focuses on similarities and differences in identical twins who were separated at birth or early infancy and thereafter raised by different families. Dr. Markowitz is most probably a:
91. Stanley Milgram is the American social psychologist who is best known for:
92. Which of the following theories emphasizes conscious, self-regulated behavior rather than unconscious mental influences and instinctual drives and stresses conscious thought processes, self-regulation, and the importance of situational influences?
93. An individual's unique and relatively consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving are referred to as his or her:
94. The likelihood of helping another person with no expectation of personal reward or benefit describes:
95. Any behavior that helps another person, whether the underlying motive is self-serving or selfless, can be characterized as ______ behavior.
96. According to Freud, the ______ contains information that, while not currently in conscious awareness, is still easily accessible and that can be made easily conscious.
97. Prosocial behavior is behavior in which people:
help one another, whether the underlying motive is self-serving or selfless.
98. The stage during which the adolescent reaches physical sexual maturity and the genitals again become the primary focus of pleasurable sensations is called the ______ stage.
99. According to social cognitive theory, the personalities of different individuals reflect the interaction of behavioral, cognitive, and environmental factors, a process Bandura called:
100. Jerry's wife could best be described as someone who is very social and outgoing, and who feels comfortable having new experiences and meeting new people. If Jerry's wife were to be described according to Hans Eysenck's personality dimensions, she would likely be considered:
101. The increased likelihood that a successful and happy person is more likely to help others is called the ______ effect.
102. The stage during which sexual impulses become repressed and dormant and the child develops same-sex friendships with peers and focuses on school, sports, and other activities is called the ______ stage of psychosexual development.
103. The early followers of Freud who developed their own theories yet still recognized the importance of many of Freud's basic notions are referred to as:
104. When asked to describe her husband, Mrs. Rice said that he is prone to exaggerating his accomplishments and importance, seems unaware of the reality of his limitations, and tends to overcompensate for his feelings of inferiority and weakness. Adler would probably have said that Mr. Rice has a(n):
105. American psychologist ______ is best known for his research on observational learning and his social cognitive theory of personality.
106. All of the following factors increase the likelihood that a bystander will help EXCEPT:
1. feel good, do good
2. feeling guilty
3. seeing others who are willing to help
4. perceiving other person as deserving of help
5. knowing how to help
6. a personalized relationship
7. a dangerous situation
107. The theory of personality known as ______ theory emphasizes the importance of observational learning, conscious cognitive processes, social experiences, self-efficacy beliefs, and reciprocal determinism.
108. The process by which we form judgments and draw conclusions about the characteristics of others is known as:
109. The ______ refers to a phenomenon in which the greater the number of people present, the less likely each individual is to help someone in distress.
110. Rhonda's husband could best be described as someone who is quiet and keeps to himself, and who feels more comfortable with people and situations that he knows. If Rhonda's husband were to be described according to Hans Eysenck's personality dimensions, he would likely be called:
111. Implicit personality theory is:
network of assumptions or beliefs about the relationship among various types of people, traits, and behaviors.
112. According to Eysenck's theory, a person who is high on the trait known as ______ is more prone to become emotionally upset, while a person who is high on the trait known as ______ is predisposed to be emotionally even.
neuroticism, emotional stability
113. The mental processes people use to make sense of their social situations is called:
114. A phenomenon in which the presence of other people makes it LESS likely that any individual will help someone in distress because the obligation to intervene is shared among all the onlookers, is called:
115. Which of the following factors would influence a person's decision NOT to help a person in need?
1. Diffusion of responsibilty
2. Motivation to some extent by desire to behave in socially acceptable way and to appear correct.
116. An individual's unique sense of identity that has been influenced by social, cultural, and psychological experiences is called:
sense of self
117. Any verbal or physical behavior intended to cause harm to other people is called:
118. Dr. Jivraj, like many contemporary trait theorists, believes that the 16-trait model is too complex and the three-dimensional trait theory is too limited. He favors, rather, a model in which five basic dimensions represent the structural organization of personality traits. The five factors are:
119. Social psychologists call the mental process of classifying people into groups on the basis of their shared characteristics:
120. The effects of situational factors and other people on an individual's behavior is also known as:
121. Which of the following is NOT a biological explanation for aggression?
genetic, structural, and biochemical
122. Miguel is giving a lecture on the five-factor model of personality. Which of the following personality dimensions is NOT likely to be included in his talk?
123. Gilbert is taking a test that asks him to answer standardized questions about himself, such as "How often have you experienced anxiety in the last year?," after which the questions and answers are compared with established norms. He is told to answer the questions as honestly as possible. The type of test Gilbert has been given is called a(n):
124. The branch of psychology that studies how a person's thoughts, feelings, and behavior are influenced by the presence of other people and by the social and physical environment is called ______ psychology.
125. The concept of diffusion of responsibility helps to explain ______, which occurs when the presence of other people makes it less likely that an individual will help someone in distress.
126. If the personal costs for helping another person in need outweigh the benefits, it is ______ likely that the person in need will get help.
Male is to _____ aggression as female is to _____ aggression.
a caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude, which Carl Rogers believed would help clients to develop self-awareness and self-acceptance. (Myers Psychology for AP 2e pp. 572, 712)
Participants in one study wore digital audio recorders. Research assistants coded the sounds and compared the coded behaviors to the participants' self-reports of behavior. Friends of the participants also made ratings of behavior frequencies. The findings show that...
The term that best describes understanding a person from his or her point of view is
A classic series of experiments by Stanley Milgram demonstrated the profound effect of
Recommended textbook explanations
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
Myers' Psychology for the AP Course
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A Concise Introduction To Logic (Mindtap Course List)
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