90 terms

AP HUG Agriculture

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Agriculture
Domesticated plants and animals whose purpose is for human use
Cultivate
To care for
Crop
Any plant that is cultivated for people
Hunters and Gatherers
Method to obtain food before farming
Men (Hunters and Gatherers)
Hunted
Women (Hunters and Gatherers)
Gatherers
Nomadic
Moving from one place to another for food
Neolithic Revolution
1st agricultural revolution
Environmental Factors (Neolithic Revolution)
Ice age ending
Cultural factors (Neolithic Revolution)
Hunters and gatherers noticing that dropped seeds become plants
Crop hearths
The origin of where crops were grown
Southwest Asia
Barley and wheat 10,000 years ago
East Asia
Rice 10,000 years ago
sub-Sahara Africa
Yams
Latin America
Cotton, beans, and potatoes 4,000-5,000 years ago
North America
Corn, 4,000-5,000 years ago
Animal Hearths
Starting points of the first domesticated animals
Southwest Asia (Animal Hearths)
Largest animal hearth in the world-cattle, goats, sheep, dogs
Central Asia
Horse
Subsistence Agriculture
farmers grow enough food for themselves and their family
LEDC
Less economically developed countries (97% of the world)
Commercial Agriculture
Farming for profit
MEDC
Mostly economically developed countries
Push-Pull factors
Farmers were pushed to the city because they were not making enough money
Transportation Improvements
Railroads and other methods brought products to market faster
Scientific Advencements
Farming practices; fertilizers
Farm sizes
Larger in MEDC than in LEDC
Diet
Kind of food a person eats
Climate and Cultural Preferences
Can decide what a group of people eat
Dietary energy consumption
Total amount of food someone eats
Grain
Most common dietary energy
Top 3 dietary energy foods
Grain, Corn, Rice
Meat
MEDCs get more than LEDCs
Food Security
The access at all times to food for an active and healthy life
1,800
Minimum amount of Calories
2,800
Average amount of Calories in the world
Undernourishment
Dietary energy consumption consistently lower than the minimum
870 million
People living in undernourishment conditions
Intensive farming practices
Producing higher yields for a growing population
Rapid population growth and urbanization
More and more people living in the city, less are farming
Fallow
Plowed field that is unplanted
Purpose of a Fallow
Restores nutrients to the soil
Forest Fallow
2 years of farming; 20+ years of fallow
Bush Fallow
8 years of farming; 10 years of fallow
Short Fallow
2 years of fallow; fallow for up to 2 years
Annual cropping
Fields are used once a year
Multi-Cropping
Fields are used several times a year
International Trade
Crops being sold for better equipment
Catch 22
The need for money for equipment to grow more food so cash crops are grown
Africa
Struggles with food supply
Drought
Long period of time without precipitation
Desertification
The process of becoming a desert
Overgrazing
Livestock eating grass too much, resulting in it dying
Drug Crops
Developing countries who are connected with the drug trade
Cocaine
Bolivia, Columbia, and Peru
Heroin
Afghanistan
Marijuana
Mexico
Challenges for developed Farmers
Overproduction
Overproduction
When supply exceeds demand
Subsidies
Government money issued to deal with overproduction
Diversification
Government paying out the price difference; farmers don't only farm the crop that pays the most
Von Thunen Model
Explains why certain aspects of agriculture are done the way they are
Western Hemisphere to Eastern Hemisphere
Direction of agricultural products move
Latin America (Brazil and Argentina)
Produce the most % wise
North America, Southeast Asia, and South Pacific
Very high export numbers; diversified products
Europe
Major importer
Overfishing
Taking more than fish can reproduce
Hybrid Seeds
Seeds that can grow in less than adequate conditions
GMO crops
Crops genetically modified
Sustainable Agriculture
A way to hold on to production #'s longer
Ridge Tillage
Planting on the ridges of last year
Pastoral Nomadism
subsistence agriculture based on the herding of animals
Transhumance
seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pasture areas
swidden
cleared land
Potash
only available fertilizer which is from the burning of the soon to be field
What is intensive referring to?
The farmer must work very hard to survive
Wet rice
Rice planted on dry land and then moved to a flooded field
Sawah
Flooded field
Paddy
Incorrect way to say sawah
Double-Cropping
Two harvest in per year
Plantation
Large commercial farms in LEDCs that specialize in a crop or two
U.S. Corn Belt
Ohio to the Dakotas
Cereal Grains
Seeds that come from grasses such as Millet or Wheat
Rest Crop
A crop that helps to replenish lost nutrients to the soil
Commercial gardening and fruit farming
Long growing season, with a humid climate
Truck farming
Same thing as Commercial gardening and fruit farming
Milkshed
Ring around a city from which milk is supplied from
Ranching
Commercial grazing of livestock
Largest producer of dairy products
India
Horticulture
The growing of fruits veggies and flowers, and tree crops which form the commercial base of Mediterranean farming