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Chapter 11-Properties of the Hair and Scalp Review Questions

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The scientific study of hair, its diseases, and care is called:
biology
The twp parts of a mature hair strand are the hair shaft and:
hair root
The portion of hair that projects above the skin is the:
hair shaft
The follicle, bulb ,papilla, arrector pili muscle, and sebaceous glands are main structures of the:
hair root
The tubelike depression or pocket in the skin or scalp that contains the hair root is the:
follicle
Hair follicles are not found on the palms of the hands or the:
soles of the feet
The follicle extends downward from the epidermis, where it surrounds the:
dermal papilla
The lowest area or part of the hair strand is the:
hair bulb
A small, cone-shaped area at the base of the hair follicle that fits into the hair bulb is the:
dermal papilla
A tiny, involuntary muscle fiber inserted in the base of the hair follicle is the:
arrector pili
The oil glands of the skin connected to the hair follicles are:
sebaceous glands
An oily substance secreted from the sebaceous glands is:
sebum
The overlapping layer of hair with transparent, scalelike cells is the:
cuticle
The three main layers of the hair shaft are the cuticle, medulla ,and:
cortex
Swelling the hair raises the cuticle layer and allows for:
penetration
For chemicals to penetrate a healthy cuticle hair layer, they must:
have an alkaline pH
The fibrous protein core of the hair, formed by elongated cells containing melanin pigment, is the:
cortex layer
The medulla is the innermost layer of the hair and is composed of:
round cells
Hair is composed of a protein that grows from cells originating within the:
hair follicle
The process whereby living cells mature and begin their journey up the hair shaft is:
keratinization
The five main elements that make up the chemical composition of human hair are carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and:
nitrogen and sulfur
The chemical bonds that hold together the amino acid molecules are:
peptide bonds
An end bond is also known as a(n):
peptide bond
When peptide bonds hold together a very long chain of amino acids, it is called a;
Polypeptide chain
The three main types of cross-links that form the bonds between the polypeptide chains are hydrogen bonds, salt bonds, and:
disulfide bonds
A weak type of physical side bond that is easily broken by water or heat is a(n):
hydrogen bond
A salt bond is easily broken with the use of:
strong alkaline or acidic solutions
Bonds that must be chemically separated are:
disulfide bonds
Hydrogen chemical hair relaxers break disulfide bonds and during rinsing convert them to:
lanthionine bonds
The natural hair pigment found in the cortex layer of the hair is:
melanin
Two different types of melanin are eumelanin and:
pheomelanin
Natural wave patterns are the result of:
genetics
Asians tend to have:
extremely straight hair
Extremely curly hair grows:
in long twisted spirals
To help minimize tangles in extremely curly hair when washing, you should use:
a detangling rinse
Extremely curly hair may often break or knot easily due to:
low elasticity
Four important factors to consider in hair analysis are texture and porosity:
elasticity and density
The thickness or diameter of the individual hair strand is the:
hair texture
Hair texture is classified as:
coarse, medium, or fine
The measurement of individual hair strands on one square inch of the scalp is:
hair density
The ability of the hair to absorb water or oil is:
porosity
Chemical services performed on the hair with low porosity require:
more alkaline solutions
Hair with high porosity is often the result of:
overprocessing
The ability of the hair to stretch and return without breaking is:
elasticity
Wet hair with normal elasticity will stretch up to:
50 percent
When shaping and styling hair, consider the hair's:
natural growth pattern
Dry hair and scalp can be caused by:
inactive sebaceous glands
Oily scalp and hair can be treated by properly shampooing with:
normalizing shampoo
Hair that is not pigmented and almost never has a medulla is
vellus
Long, soft hair found on the scalp, legs, arms, and bodies of males and females is:
terminal
The phases of hair growth are anagen, catagen, and:
telogen
The growth phase where new hair is produced is:
anagen
The average growth of healthy scalp hair is:
one inch per month
The final or resting phase in the hair growth cycle is:
telogen stage
In general, the cross sections of curly hair can be:
oval
The term used to identify abnormal hair loss is:
alopecia
The sudden falling out of hair in round patches or baldness in spots is called:
alopecia areata
Two products approved by the FDA to stimulate hair growth and allowed for sale in the United States are:
minoxidil and finasteride
The technical term used to describe gray hair Is:
canities
A variety of canities, characterized by alternating bands of gray and pigmented hair, is:
ringed hair
A condition of abnormal hair growth on areas of the body is:
hypertrichosis
Trichorrhexis nodosa is characterized by brittleness of the hair and the formation of:
swellings along the hair shaft
The technical term used to describe beaded hair is:
monilethrix
The technical term for dandruff is:
pityriasis
The medical term used to describe a fungal organism characterized by itching, scales, and painful circular leisons is:
tinea
The type of fungal infection characterized by red papules at the opening of the hair follicles is:
tinea capitis
A highly contagious skin disease caused by a mite parasite is:
scabies
An acute localized bacterial infection of the hair follicle that produces constant pain is:
a furuncle
An inflammation of the subcutaneous tissue caused by staphylococci is:
a carbuncle
The spread of diseases can be prevented by practicing approved:
sanitation and disinfection procedures