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Apush Period 8: The Johnson Administration - The Vietnam War vocab
Terms in this set (45)
Election of 1964
Lyndon Johnson (Democratic) vs. Barry Goldwater. (Republican).
Goldwater attacked the federal income tax, the Social Security System, the Tennessee Valley Authority, civil rights legislation, the nuclear test-ban treaty, and the Great Society (Goldwater portrayed as an extremist who would get the U.S. into a nuclear war)
Johnson and his "Great Society" program soundly defeated the hawkish Republican Barry Goldwater. The Democrats also achieved huge gains in Congress, breaking the conservative stranglehold.
(1964-1968) President Lyndon Johnson's term for his domestic agenda that was billed as a successor to the New Deal, it aimed to extend the postwar prosperity to all people in American society by promoting civil rights and fighting poverty, including programs such as the War on Poverty (expanded the Social Security system by creating Medicare and Medicaid to provide health care for the aged and poor). Johnson also signed laws protecting consumers and empowering community organizations to combat poverty at grassroots level
War on Poverty
The name for legislation first introduced by United States President Lyndon B. Johnson during his State of the Union address on January 8, 1964. This legislation was proposed by Johnson in response to the difficult economic conditions associated with a national poverty rate of around nineteen percent.
It started many small programs, Medicare, Head Start, Job Corps, VISTA and reorganized immigration to eliminate national origin quotas. It was put on hold during the Vietnam War.
Economic Opportunity Act
(1964) As part of LBJ's "war on poverty," he created this to help every individual gain the opportunity to work in society by providing education, training, and work opportunities. It created ten programs designed to work toward those goals--the Job Corps, Neighborhood Youth Corps, Work Study, Work Experience, and Loans to Rural Families to name a few.
The program was given $800 million for the first year, lower than originally wanted, while earlier the Council of Economic Advisers had estimated that $11 billion a year would bring everyone out of poverty.
The act had some effect but failed to achieve the profound "elimination of poverty" envisioned by LBJ.
(1965) A program added to the Social Security system that provides hospitalization insurance for the elderly and permits older Americans to purchase inexpensive coverage for doctor fees and other health expenses (65 years old and above).
A federal and state assistance program that pays for health care services for people who cannot afford them (low-income families)
A program of the United States Department of Health and Human Services that provides comprehensive education (pre-school), health, nutrition, and parent involvement services to low-income children and their families. It began in 1965 and was later updated in 1981. It is one of the longest-running programs to address systemic poverty in the United States
(1972) Prohibited sex discrimintaion in any federally funded educational program or activity. The acts biggest impact was that it granted equal rights to female athletes
Equal Pay Act
(1963) Outlawed gender-based wage discrimination and requires employers to pay women and men the same wages for the same work; first law prohibiting gender discrimination
The Feminine Mystique
(1963) Best-selling book by feminist thinker Betty Friedan. This work challenged women to move beyond the drudgery of suburban housewifery ("stifling boredom") and helped launch what would become second-wave feminism.
National Organization for Women
(NOW) (1966) Founded by Betty Friedan; organization formed to work for economic and legal rights of women; demanded equality in educational and job opportunies, wages, and political representation; creation of childcare facilities; wanted Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforce its legal mandate to end sex discrimination. Also championed the legalization of abortion and passage of an Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution.
Equal Rights Amendment
(ERA) Supported by the National Organization for Women, the ERA, first proposed in 1923, would prevent all gender-based discrimination practices (require equal treatment of men and women under federal and state law). In the 1970s, the House and Senate passed the amendment and sent it to the states for ratification. The amendment failed to be approved by three-fourths of the states and so was never added
An organization founded by Phyllis Schlafly in 1972 to fight the Equal Rights Amendment
Roe v Wade
(1973) The court legalized abortion by ruling that state laws could not restrict it during the first three months of pregnancy. Based on 4th Amendment rights of a person to be secure in their persons.
Seen as a victory for feminism and civil liberties by some, the decision provoked a strong counter-reaction by opponents to abortion, galvanizing the Pro-Life movement.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
A joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident (the Maddox and Turner Joy had been attacked). It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.
Escalating the war in Vietnam from 16,000 when JFK was assassinated to 542,00 in 1969.
Operation Rolling Thunder
Launched by President Johnson, a massive air bombarbment of North Vietnam, in April of 1965. The targets were directly chosen by the president. These were regular full scale bombing attacks against Vietnam.
Supposed to weaken enemy's ability and will to fight but failed on both accounts.
Students for a Democratic Society
(SDS)(1962) A popular college student organization that protested shortcomings in American life, notably racial injustice and the Vietnam War. It led thousands of campus protests before it split apart at the end of the 1960s.
Wanted to rid American society of poverty, racism, and violence; embraced liberal reforms; advocated participator democracy; individual > group
Ho Chi Minh
North Vietnamese leader who had led the resistance against the Japanese during WW II and at the end of the war had led the uprising against the French Colonial government. Defeated the French and became the leader of the Republic of Vietnam. He led the war to unify the country in the face of increased military opposition from the United States
(1954) A conference held to establish the government of Vietnam after the French decision to leave the country. The agreement divided Vietnam on the 17th parallel, confining Ho Chi Minh's government to the North. In the South, an independent government was headed by Diem.
Initially used to justify giving a lot of aid to South Vietnam, this theory was devised by Eisenhower. It stated that if South Vietnam fell under Communist control, one nation after another in Southeast Asia would also fall, until Australia and New Zealand were in danger. Thus, the U.S had to do anything in order to keep South Vietnam from going to Communist rule.
War Powers Act of 1973
Law passed by Congress limiting the President's ability to wage war without Congressional approval. The act required the President to notify Congress within 48 hours of committing troops to a foreign conflict. An important consequence of the Vietnam War, this piece of legislation sought to reduce the President's unilateral authority in military matters.
Communist guerrilla force that, with the support of the North Vietnamese Army, fought against South Vietnam (late 1950s-1975) and the United States (early 1960s-1973)
(1968) In February 1968, the Viet Cong (communist guerrillas) in South Vietnam launched a major offensive, hoping to provoke widespread rebellion in the country. The effort failed, but the psychological impact on South Vietnam and the United States (declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment) made it a great victory for the Viet Cong and North Vietnam. The United States thereafter reversed its policy of escalation and began a policy of Vietnamization of the war
My Lai Massacre
(1968) Military assault in a small Vietnamese village on March 16, 1968, in which American soldiers under the command of 2nd Lieutenant William Calley murdered hundreds of unarmed Vietnamese civilians, mostly women and children. The atrocity produced outrage and reduced support for the war in America and around the world when details of the massacre and an attempted cover-up were revealed in 1971.
This was the gap between the people and the government that grew as the people became disillusioned with the Vietnam war and Watergate.
Student protest that started as the Free Speech movement in California and spread around the world, with common denominator of opposition to war in Vietnam and condemning US presence there. as violation of Viet rights and US imperialism. Lead to growing activism on campuses aimed as social reform etc. Primarily a middle-class movement.
Countercultural works such as the notorious MacBird by Barbara Garson encouraged a spirit of nonconformism and anti-establishmentarianism.
Draft & Draft Dodgers
Resisters actively refused service, e.g., who claimed conscientious objector status, openly protested the war and their draft status, etc. They avoided the draft, using a variety of techniques. One of the most common means was by fleeing the United States for Canada.
(1971) Voting age set at 18 years old. (Reaction to youth movement and Vietnam War; lowered voting age from 21 years old to 18 years old.)
Kent State Massacre
(1970) Massacre of four college students by National Guardsmen on May 4, 1970, in Ohio. In response to Nixon's announcement that he had expanded the Vietnam War into Cambodia (Nixon ordering US troops to seize Cambodia without consulting Congress). Lead to college campuses across the country exploded in violence.
Nixon Administration's term to describe generally content, law-abiding middle-class Americans who supported both the Vietnam War and America's institutions. As a political tool, the concept attempted to make a subtle distinction between believers in "traditional" values and the vocal minority of civil rights agitators, student protesters, counter-culturalists, and other seeming disruptors of the social fabric.
Nixon's policy that involved withdrawing 540,000 US troops from South Vietnam over an extended period of time. It also included a gradual take over of the South Vietnamese taking responsibility of fighting their own war by American-provided money, weapons, training, and advice.
Allowed the United States to save its reputation and satisfy an American public weary with a futile struggle.
Ho Chi Minh Trail
A network of jungle paths winding from North Vietnam through Laos and Cambodia into South Vietnam, used as a military route by North Vietnam to supply the Viet Cong during the Vietnam War.
Paris Peace Accords
(1973) Organized by Kissinger. Ended the U.S. participation in the Vietnam War. North Vietnam agreed to an armistice and the United States removed the last of its troops. North Vietnam also agreed to return over 500 prisoners-of-war. In addition, the Accords also promised a cease-fire and free elections.
This ended American participation in a war that cost over 58,000 American lives.
Did not end the war between North and South Vietnam and thousands of North Vietnamese troops were still in South Vietnam and everyone knew South Vietnam would quickly fall after United States troops were withdrawn.
Fall of Saigon
(1975) Almost two years after American troops had begun to pull out of the Vietnam conflict, the South Vietnamese capital fell to Communist North Vietnam. The fall of the capital happened so quickly that the remaining Americans, and about 140,000 South Vietnamese, were evacuated by helicopter. The fall of Saigon was a great representation of the persistence of the Communist regime to spread further. The fall also showed America's failure to stop the spread of Communism and showed that America was not invincible.
During the Vietnam War, Daniel Ellsberg leaked confidential information to the press. These revealed that the government had kept information about the war from Congress and the public ( 7,000-page top-secret United States government report on the history of the internal planning and policy-making process within the government itself concerning the Vietnam War). At first Nixon tried to block New York Times from publishing the information, but Congress ruled that the papers have the constitutional right to publish any information they have. Caused Americans to believe that the U.S. may lose the War in Vietnam.
War Powers Act
(1973) Law passed by Congress limiting the President's ability to wage war without Congressional approval. The act required the President to notify Congress within 48 hours of committing troops to a foreign conflict and they have 60-90 to bring them home if they disagree. An important consequence of the Vietnam War, this piece of legislation sought to reduce the President's unilateral authority in military matters.
The 36th US president. He privately wanted to stay out of Vietnam but sent soldiers because his goal was to stop the spread of communism.
Signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 into law and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. He had a War on Poverty in his agenda. in an attempt to win, he set a few goals, including the Great Society, the Economic Opportunity Act, and other programs that provided food stamps and welfare to needy families. He also created a Department of Housing and Urban Development. His most important legislation was probably Medicare and Medicaid.
Leader of the extreme conservative wing of the Republican party, was the party's nominee for president in 1964.
Republican contender against LBJ for presidency; platform included lessening federal involvement, therefore opposing Civil Rights Act of 1964
(1960s) Wrote "The Feminine Mystique," an account of housewives' lives in which they subordinated their own aspirations to the needs of men; bestseller was an inspiration "Second Wave" of feminism for many women to join the women's rights movement later co-founded NOW (National Organization for Women)
A conservative female political activist. She stopped the Equal Right Amendment (ERA) from being passed, seeing that it would hinder women more than it would help them.
Younger brother of JFK who entered public life as U.S. Attorney General during the Kennedy Administration. Later elected senator from New York, he became an anti-war, pro-civil rights presidential candidate in 1968, launching a popular challenge to incumbent President Johnson. Amid that campaign, he was assassinated in California on June 6, 1968
(1968 and 1972) 37th President (Republican); Vietnam: advocated "Vietnamization" (withdrawal of 540,000 troops from South Vietnam for an extended period), but also bombed Cambodia/Laos, created a "credibility gap," Paris Peace Accords ended direct US involvement; Economy-took US off gold standard (currency valued by strength of economy); Created the Environmental Protection Agency, was president during first moon landing; SALT I and new policy of detente between US and Soviet Union; Watergate scandal: Became first and only president to resign
National Security Advisor and Secretary of State during the Nixon Administration, he was responsible for negotiating an Treaty of Paris that led to a ceasefire in Vietnam in 1973
A war hero of Vietnam, who had been presented with the Congressional Medal of Honor by Reagan (gravely injured and managed to save 8 soldiers 1968).
Green Beret Special Forces soldier who sustained 36 wounds in battle against North Vietnameze troops in Cambodia
Chief Justice on the Supreme Court from 1953 to 1969 who presided over the Brown V. Board of Education case. He used a loose interpretation of the Constitution to expand rights for both African-Americans and those accused of crimes.
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